Do American Indians celebrate the 4th of July?

  
Via:  1stwarrior  •  4 months ago  •  31 comments

Do American Indians celebrate the 4th of July?
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

S E E D E D   C O N T E N T


How do Native Americans observe the 4th of July? The answer is as complicated as America’s history. Perhaps the best-known passage of the the Declaration of Independence is the statement that all men are created equal. But many Native Americans also remember the signers’ grievance against the King of England:


He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

With the emergence of a nation interested in expanding its territory came the issue of what to do with American Indians, who were already living all across the land. As the American non-Indian population increased, the Indigenous population greatly decreased, along with tribal homelands and cultural freedoms. From the beginning, U.S. government policy contributed to the loss of culture and land.

Keeping our focus on the 4th of July, let’s jump ahead to the 1880s, when the U.S. government developed what has come to be called the Religious Crimes Code—regulations at the heart of the federal Office of Indian Affairs’ Code of Indian Offenses that prohibited American Indian ceremonial life. Enforced on reservations, the code banned Indian dances and feasts, disrupted religious practices, and destroyed or confiscated sacred objects, under threat of imprisonment and the withholding of treaty rations. The Secretary of the Interior issued the regulations in 1884, 1894, and 1904, and Indian superintendents and agents implemented them until the mid-1930s. For 50 years, Indian spiritual ceremonies were held in secret or ceased to exist.

In response to this policy of cultural and religious suppression, some tribes saw in the 4th of July and the commemoration of American independence a chance to continue their own important ceremonies. Indian superintendents and agents justified allowing reservations to conduct ceremonies on the 4th as a way for Indians to learn patriotism to the United States and to celebrate the country's ideals.

That history is why a disproportionate number of American Indian tribal gatherings take place on or near the 4th of July and are often the social highlights of the year. Over time these cultural ceremonies became tribal homecomings. American Indian veterans in particular were welcomed home as modern-day followers of warrior traditions. The Navajo Tribe of Arizona and Pawnee of Oklahoma are two examples of tribes that use the 4th of July to honor their tribal veterans. Tribal veterans’ songs and flag songs are sung. Before the Reservation Era, when most Indians saw the American flag coming toward their villages and camps, it symbolized conflict, death, and destruction. But more than 12,000 American Indians served during World War I, and after the war, the American flag began to be given a prominent position at American Indian gatherings, especially those held on the 4th of July. This symbol of patriotism and national unity is carried into powwow and rodeo arenas today.

The Lumbee of North Carolina and Mattaponi of Virginia use the 4th of July as time for tribal members to renew cultural and family ties. The Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma holds Gourd Clan ceremonies, because the holiday coincides with their Sun Dance, which once took place during the hottest part of the year. The Lakota of South Dakota and Cheyenne of Oklahoma continue to have some of their annual Sun Dances on the weekends closest to the 4th of July to coincide with the celebration of their New Year.

To find out how individual American Indians across the country feel about celebrating the 4th of July, or how they’ll spend the day, we asked people on Facebook. Here are some of the answers we received this year:

Kansas City, Missouri:   Some important tribes helped both the colonies and the British fight the Revolutionary War, and others gave aid. And some tribes continued fighting for the United States after the country was established, right through the Civil War. So it does not bother me to celebrate the 4th of July. . . . The government formed by that 1776 revolution, even though it nearly exterminated us, still rules this land today, and has changed enough now to give those of us left a chance for survival. We are all changed, but Indians have always supported the U.S. government in one way or another.

Anadarko, Oklahoma:   On July 4, 1967, I was in Vietnam, a short-timer waiting to come home. I didn't celebrate Independence Day, because the meaning is different for most Native Americans. I just wanted to be in Oklahoma. That time of the year is like a homecoming for Kiowa people around Carnegie. Or like the Summer Solstice—the beginning of a new year, a renewal of traditions, friendships, and a happy time. No matter where I was stationed or lived, I tried to be in Carnegie at the Annual Kiowa Gourd Clan Dance. One of those times I was at a Sun Dance on the last day. It was Sunday, July 4. Everything was over, and the last meal had been consumed. The sun had just set to the west, and the whole camp was at rest, when a fireworks display erupted to the east and we were treated to a spectacular show of beauty and color to end a great year. My roots are deeply embedded in home, family, and traditions.

Hogansburg, New York:   It doesn’t make sense to celebrate one group of foreigners’ independence from another at the expense of our own people and land. When we Mohawks and others fought in the U.S. War of Independence, it was for our own survival, and even that was controversial at the time.

Fort Hall, Idaho:   I force my way into the office—break in to work and not celebrate! I’m kidding. Since it’s a federal holiday and we have it off, we use the day off to practice our off-reservation hunting and fishing rights and go salmon spearing. Or we go to a powwow.

Mt. Rainier, Maryland:   As a veteran, I take the family to celebrate the freedom we have, but also teach what the costs were and still are to Native people.

Bartlesville, Oklahoma:   We don’t celebrate the 4th. Native people did not become free from anything on that day. We do, however, attend my wife’s tribes’ dance. We look forward to the Quapaw Powwow each year as a family time, an opportunity to sing and dance and practice our social traditions.

Wilmington, Delaware:   My family acknowledges the sacrifices the military has made for this country, even though the country has been built on unsavory deeds. We are going to the Veterans Hospital to talk about local Native culture with the vets who live there. I’ll also include some information about Native people in the military.

Chicago, Illinois:   No, I never celebrated. I just liked watching the fireworks when my crew were kids. It used to be while I was working at the American Indian Center, we were always asked to walk in parades and do dance performances.

Caribou, Maine:   Cookouts and family mostly. . . . As far as independence, fireworks are legal here, but you’re not allowed to set them off after 10 p.m. on July 4th.

South Padre Island, Texas:   I do, but in another way. I celebrate by honoring the war chiefs in my tribes for getting us through such troubled times. . . . Independence still lives with us and in us.

Sitka, Alaska:   As far as the 4th of July, my Tlingit dance group has a fry bread booth. We sell it as a fundraiser to make it to the biennial event known as Celebration, which is held in Juneau. Usually around 40 dance groups attend, predominantly Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian, which are the three tribes most prevalent in Southeast Alaska. There are also sometimes guest dance groups from other parts of Alaska or even the world. Our town celebrates with booths, sometimes an organized collection of them and sometimes a hodgepodge around town; fireworks on the night of the 3rd, which the fuel company sponsors; and a parade on the 4th.

Pueblo, Colorado:   My village celebrates July 7th. That’s our traditional chief’s wedding anniversary.

Lawrence, Kansas:   I personally do not celebrate the history of the 4th of July. My celebration is to honor all the Native men and women who have served and are serving this nation. . . . They were and still are defending the only homelands our people have ever known. We cannot run back to any other country or lands, because this   is   our country and our lands.   Mvto   for allowing me to share a little of my thought on the 4th of July!   Pah-bee   [brother], until the words of the Declaration of Independence are changed, I’m still a merciless Indian Savage. And I can live with that, because that’s what my people before were called!

Lancaster, Pennsylvania:   Having family in the military and now our son, it has always been about the sacrifices made. We clean the graves, plant or put up new flowers, and pray.

Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin:   The Ho-Chunk Nation recognizes July 4th as Cpl. Mitchell RedCloud Jr. Day.   Cpl. RedCloud   was killed in action while serving in the Army during the Korean War. He posthumously received the Medal of Honor for “dauntless courage and gallant self-sacrifice” in battle near Chonghyon, North Korea, on 5 November 1950.

Omak, Washington:   The Nespelem celebration was originally a defiant ruse by Chief Joseph. He had returned from Oklahoma, where he saw the first powwows. The Army banned any tribal meetings and gatherings at Colville. So the people came up with the idea of fooling the United States into thinking we were celebrating America’s holiday. It worked. Indians came. It’s been held ever since. Now it’s the week after the 4th of July, so we don’t have to compete with all the casino-sponsored powwows.

Winterhaven, California:   I don't celebrate the 4th of July. It’s another day. I will be working. All tribal employees work that day.

Norman, Oklahoma:   Independence Day has a different meaning for us as Native people. We exercise our freedom carrying on the traditions of our people in whatever that form that may be. For me, it is in Carnegie, Oklahoma, in Kiowa country, at the Kiowa Tia-Piah (Gourd Clan) Society Celebration.

Tulsa, Oklahoma:   I am headed to Quapaw Powwow, arguably the longest running annual powwow—145 years. Our family and tribal nation have always played host to friends and visitors from all over the world.

Laguna, New Mexico:   As much turmoil the United States government has given our people in the past and present, my father has instilled in my family a sense of loyalty, liberty, and responsibility for our country. He is a Vietnam Veteran and could easily have forsaken this country due to the treatment he and other Vietnam veterans received upon their return. Instead, he chose to defend the country and the land of Indigenous Americans. He then raised his children and grandchildren to respect the country. So we will spend the day probably watching a parade in the morning and then have a BBQ with friends and family. We will honor and remember the veterans on this day.

Akwesasne Mohawk territory, Haudenosaunee territory:   We don't celebrate the independence of our colonizer, especially considering that George Washington ordered the Sullivan–Clinton Campaign of burnings, displacement, and murder against the Haudenosaunee villages during their war for Independence. This while so many of our people were helping the Americans at Valley Forge, while decisive battles were won due to Iroquois allies.

Shawnee, Oklahoma:  The flag of the United States is not exclusively the flag of the immigrants who came here and created a government, it is also the flag that our own warriors defended many times in the last century and currently today. Yes, it was once flown by our enemy, but it now represents those warriors who fought under it and all those who work toward fulfillment of tribal sovereignty and treaty rights and an inclusive country where immigrants and indigenous people live together equally protected under the Constitution. It is a symbol of the treaty agreements that we as indigenous people still have our inherent rights. Okay, that’s not a celebration but that’s what I think when I celebrate.

Prewitt, New Mexico, and the Navajo Nation:   No, I do not celebrate. Because I as a Diné will never relinquish my belief or understanding that we as a people and a nation have the right to be loyal to the Holy Ones before all others, including the United States. We as a people existed long before there ever was a United States.

Taos, New Mexico:   Taos is a very close-knit community, and even more so at Taos Pueblo nearby. Both have had many citizens serve in America’s military in the heartfelt belief that they are protecting our nation. One of our honored tribal elders is Tony Reyna, 97, who survived the Bataan Death March during World War II. I have been told many times that, for us, the idea of protection goes deeper than for most Americans. This land is where our people emerged, and any threat to it is met from a place of deep, deep meaning. People here celebrate Independence Day pretty much as they do everywhere. It’s a day off, and there are parades and fireworks displays. But for many we remember World War II, Korea, Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan, and the sacrifices our people made. I wish all people could remember that.

Parshall, North Dakota, and the Three Affiliated Tribes:   The 4th is the celebration of independence, which Native people have practiced as sovereign nations for generations.

Shawnee, Oklahoma:   No, I do not celebrate Independence Day, simply because the Declaration of Independence labels my people “our enemies, the merciless savages of our frontiers.” You notice the colonists were already calling the frontiers “ours” when the land was not theirs. Because I do not celebrate Independence Day does not mean I am not proud of our Native American veterans and soldiers. I am very proud of them and of the fact almost all Native American families have a family member who is a veteran or an active member in the Armed Forces.

Wichita, Kansas:  My people, Kiowas, have always held this time of the year as a gathering of all our bands. They would celebrate for a week, indulging in each society’s dances, renewing friendships, visiting relatives, and so on. As we progressed into this modern society we are a part of, we recognized the importance of this celebration even more so. To honor our freedoms and the men and women who sacrificed for us today is truly a reason to celebrate the 4th of July. Does it mean we are to forget our struggles and the plight of our people? NO, but it commemorates the beauty of our land and the resolve of this nation we call America.

Waikoloa, Hawai'i, via the Red Cloud Indian School, Pine Ridge, South Dakota:   It is a sad time, . . . thinking of all the treaties never honored. I try to hold my children and grandcubs near and invite others who are alone or ill or elderly to eat lots of food that I cook until I am very tired and thank the Creator for another wonderful day.

As Americans everywhere celebrate the 4th of July, I think about how many American Indians are taking their vacations back to their reservations and home communities. All across Indian Country, tribes hold modern celebrations—including powwows, rodeos, and homecomings—that coincide with the United States’ Independence Day celebrations.

 

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1stwarrior
1  seeder  1stwarrior    4 months ago

Shawnee, Oklahoma: No, I do not celebrate Independence Day, simply because the Declaration of Independence labels my people “our enemies, the merciless savages of our frontiers.” You notice the colonists were already calling the frontiers “ours” when the land was not theirs. Because I do not celebrate Independence Day does not mean I am not proud of our Native American veterans and soldiers. I am very proud of them and of the fact almost all Native American families have a family member who is a veteran or an active member in the Armed Forces.

 
 
 
MrFrost
1.1  MrFrost  replied to  1stwarrior @1    4 months ago

Excellent article, thanks for the information. 

 
 
 
dave-2693993
2  dave-2693993    4 months ago

Have to repeat MrFrosts post.

Thank you 1st.

 
 
 
Paula Bartholomew
2.1  Paula Bartholomew  replied to  dave-2693993 @2    4 months ago

I second that.  Well done 1st.

 
 
 
1stwarrior
2.1.1  seeder  1stwarrior  replied to  Paula Bartholomew @2.1    4 months ago

Thank you Paula - that means a lot.

 
 
 
1stwarrior
3  seeder  1stwarrior    4 months ago

Got a tee-shirt I wear frequently - "Sure you can Trust the Government - Just ask an Indian."  Get a lot of positive comments and smiles.

It's sad that the newly formed "government" decided that Native Americans, the peoples who helped the "new-comers" survive and fight wars for over 175 years were held in such low regard by the, then, dominant society.  And, it's even sadder that, almost 250 years later, dominant society hasn't changed their views.

This is "our" country????

 
 
 
FLYNAVY1
3.1  FLYNAVY1  replied to  1stwarrior @3    4 months ago

You guys screwed up, you granted residency at Jamestown, and look what happened.  Given a Mulligan, I bet you'd vote to drive them back into the sea.

BTW...... The fairway is that long part between the tee box, and the green with shorter grass.  Me of course always thought that's where candy-asses played.  More challenging in the rough, and in the trees!

Take care friend.

 
 
 
1stwarrior
3.1.1  seeder  1stwarrior  replied to  FLYNAVY1 @3.1    4 months ago

If it ain't got tons and tons of bunkers containing mostly gravel and some sand - it ain't a golf course.

Fly - a little meme that's cute, but serious, kinda still expresses how many in our society feel - 

384

There are a number of us who are taking Justice John Marshall's words to heart and conducting tons of research into a number of SCOTUS decisions.  

According to Canadian lawyer John Hurley, the Marshall Court's decisions regarding aboriginal title "established the fundamental principles of aboriginal rights by which courts of many jurisdictions have guided themselves ever since." [79]   According to Hurley:

Delivered over a period of thirty-five years, the judgements bear witness to the evolution of the Marshall Court's thinking on aboriginal rights, culminating in an appraisal of them as full rights of beneficial ownership of the land and internal self-government. In order to understand the Marshall Court's assessment of aboriginal rights, it is essential to appreciate the progression in its treatment of the topic. Failure to do so, by placing excessive weight on the earlier and neglecting the later of these decisions, has sometimes led to distortions of the Marshall Court's views on aboriginal rights. [79]

Aboriginal title can't be extinguished.  In other words, even the lands seized by the Feds and States in the 17/18/1900's still belong to the tribes/nations as they have/had "Original Title" to the lands they have occupied since the beginning of time.  IF those lands have/had not been "sold", through Treaty (Supreme Law of the Land), to the Feds/States, they are still Indian lands.  And, believe it or not, there are a lot of lands that were NOT purchased by Treaty.

 
 
 
FLYNAVY1
3.1.2  FLYNAVY1  replied to  1stwarrior @3.1.1    4 months ago

I think the cartoon has it a little late...…. 1492ish would have been a good time for at least a "Keep Off The Grass!"..... or "Europeans Need Not Apply" sign to go up somewhere on the East Coast.  

 
 
 
1stwarrior
3.1.3  seeder  1stwarrior  replied to  FLYNAVY1 @3.1.2    4 months ago

"No Parking over 2 hours" woulda been nice.

 
 
 
FLYNAVY1
3.1.4  FLYNAVY1  replied to  1stwarrior @3.1.3    4 months ago

How about "Dock Permits Required"......

 
 
 
FLYNAVY1
4  FLYNAVY1    4 months ago

From my home town no less......

Lawrence, Kansas: I personally do not celebrate the history of the 4th of July. My celebration is to honor all the Native men and women who have served and are serving this nation. . . . They were and still are defending the only homelands our people have ever known. We cannot run back to any other country or lands, because this is our country and our lands. Mvto for allowing me to share a little of my thought on the 4th of July! Pah-bee [brother], until the words of the Declaration of Independence are changed, I’m still a merciless Indian Savage. And I can live with that, because that’s what my people before were called!

 
 
 
Kavika
5  Kavika     4 months ago

To say that it's complicated for Native Americans is a vast understatement. 

My band, Red Lake Ojibwe, as with all Ojibwe bands, hold a Pow Wow. The Pow Wow is to honor our veterans and to keep our cultural and family ties strong. 

We do not celebrate it as ''Independence Day'' since we lost our independence not gained it. 

"We, the Holy People have always known who we are; therefore, we have always been sovereign. As we move forward, we need to continue to practice cultural independence. Sovereignty is not defined completely by a court of law; it’s defined in our free ability to guide our children into the lives we want for them."

Wassa Inaabidaa

 
 
 
luther28
6  luther28    4 months ago

Well done, easy to see why this is such a slippery slope for some and to understand why many opt out of the festivities.

 
 
 
Kavika
7  Kavika     4 months ago

Broken Promises

1e1409d4682eb8cd8b6d71f4562a015c.jpg

 
 
 
Kavika
7.1  Kavika   replied to  Kavika @7    4 months ago

This painting is by J D Challanger...

 
 
 
Vic Eldred
8  Vic Eldred    4 months ago

Great article. I assume the founders not only put that label on Native Americans because of the land involved, but because the Indians refused to be subjugated or enslaved. There was always that demand for labor in the nation's early history. Work performed by various methods including immigrants, indentured servants or slaves.

One question, maybe I missed it - are all the reservations being run by the various tribes?

 
 
 
1stwarrior
8.1  seeder  1stwarrior  replied to  Vic Eldred @8    4 months ago

Depends. 

Each reservation with tribes/nations "normally" have a leader and council to manage the operations/protection of the tribal/nation lands.  There are some reservations that have more than one tribe/nation co-located and, some of them have a council for the entire habitants - but each tribe/nation has their own leadership who are on the council.  Sometimes it gets a bit contentious, but, for the most part, they have developed a working relationship and a shared Constitution/By-Laws.

However, in the big scheme of things, the Feds have to approve all constitutions/by-laws - they handle all Major Crimes - the tribes/nations, in most cases, can handle all non-major crimes that occur on the reservation, but sometimes have to share that responsibility with a State that has joint jurisdiction.  Those are called PL-280 states.  The Feds can and do make laws/regulations regarding Indian way of life.  As an example, an Indian can't write a will without the review and approval of the BIA.  There are numerous laws that fit into that category which causes a lot of frustration and angst amongst the tribes/nations/Feds.

Congress has taken the Commerce Clause in the Constitution to give them plenary power over all tribal/nation activities - "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;".  Over the years, Congress has passed many laws that have given them, without discussion or consultation with the Indian tribes/nations, pretty much total power over the tribes/nations.

So, are all reservations being run by the various tribes?  Depends.

If Kavika steps in, he could probably give more understanding.

 
 
 
Kavika
8.1.1  Kavika   replied to  1stwarrior @8.1    4 months ago

Very good synopsis of the current situation on the rez. 

A couple of points to add. Some tribes have both a elected Chief (chairman) and a hereditary Chief. 

There are only two ''closed reservations'' in the US that I'm aware of. My tribe is one of them. The Red Lake Band of Ojibwe (Chippawa) Indians. By closed it is meant that the land was never allotted all the land is held in common with tribal members although overseen by the feds. This is not true of most rez. The Indian Reorganized act of 1934 screwed Indians out of their land. Many of the tribes do not control all the land on their rez. Parts are owned by non Indians (Indian reorganization act) The Red Lake Ojibwe refused to join in this and today we are not a PL280 tribe and maintain our own police force etc. 

When it comes to the law, tribal federal and state, the confusion is amazing. There are very few people (Judges, courts etc) that understand Indian law in the US. The appointment of Neal Gorsuch put one person with extended knowledge and experience on SCOTUS as can be seen by a couple of his rulings regarding Indian Law and treaties. Ruth Ginsburg has a good working knowledge of Indian law as well. 

As 1st said, ''it depends''.....

 

 
 
 
Raven Wing
8.1.2  Raven Wing  replied to  Kavika @8.1.1    4 months ago
The appointment of Neal Gorsuch put one person with extended knowledge and experience on SCOTUS as can be seen by a couple of his rulings regarding Indian Law and treaties. Ruth Ginsburg has a good working knowledge of Indian law as well. 

At least there are now two on the SCOTUS who have some idea of what Indian law is and how it works. 

 
 
 
1stwarrior
8.1.3  seeder  1stwarrior  replied to  Kavika @8.1.1    4 months ago

Thank you Kavika - you shed more light on a very slippery subject.

 
 
 
dave-2693993
8.1.4  dave-2693993  replied to  Kavika @8.1.1    4 months ago

Great lecture. Tutorial doesn't come close to the proper label. Actually, lecture is short too.

You could be an educator at an accredited institution.

Obviously, most legal experts have no clue in these matters.

 
 
 
Perrie Halpern R.A.
9  Perrie Halpern R.A.    4 months ago

I belong to the Shinnacock nation. They are an amalgamation of the remnants of the many tribes that were wiped out by Sheriff Underhill. My actual lineage is Canarsie Indian, but Underhill killed most of that tribe first ( he did the NYC tribes first) before coming out to Long Island. 

Long Island tribes actually feel more a kinship with the water. The name Shinnacock means "People of the Rocky shores" They tend to celebrate Labor day (that is when they have their Pow wow), and are especially fond of the Coast Guard. We are proud Americans, but the Declaration, while it tried to address slavery (it had a anti slavery clause that was removed), seemed to have no respect for Indians and that is sad. That being said, I don't know an Indian family who has not served in the defense of this country or has a greater love of this land. 

 
 
 
1stwarrior
9.1  seeder  1stwarrior  replied to  Perrie Halpern R.A. @9    4 months ago

Thanks Perrie.  It's hard for non-Indians to understand the heritage/culture/tradition of a peoples who have been here for thousands of years.  We ain't like other cultures, so dominant society should try to get to know us - things will/would work out a whole lot better - for all sides.

 
 
 
FLYNAVY1
9.1.1  FLYNAVY1  replied to  1stwarrior @9.1    4 months ago

We ain't like other cultures.......

Yep.... Uniquely 100% American.

 
 
 
Perrie Halpern R.A.
9.1.2  Perrie Halpern R.A.  replied to  FLYNAVY1 @9.1.1    4 months ago

jrSmiley_13_smiley_image.gif

 
 
 
Kavika
10  Kavika     4 months ago

Painting by J.D. Challanger entitled....

Freedoms Last Stand

challenger-freedomslaststand.jpg

 
 
 
Perrie Halpern R.A.
10.1  Perrie Halpern R.A.  replied to  Kavika @10    4 months ago

Great painting. Tells the perfect story.

 
 
 
Kavika
11  Kavika     4 months ago

One of my favorites by J D Challanger entitled,  ''Native Son''

8fddb90c-424c-4393-8158-5a7ddedf558b_570

 
 
 
KDMichigan
12  KDMichigan    4 months ago

They represented in Traverse City.

In the afternoon, the Cherry Festival celebrates the region’s heritage with a Native American Pow Wow Dance presented by the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians from 12pm to 3pm at the Bayside Music Stage Area featuring colorful dancing and drumming and samples of Native American fare.
https://www.traverseticker.com/news/your-guide-to-fourth-of-july-events/

 
 
 
Enoch
13  Enoch    4 months ago

Dear Friend 1st Warrior: Wonderful article.

Informative.

Well researched.

Accessibly and clearly presented.

We are grateful.

Thanks.

P&AB.

Enoch.

 
 
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