Massive 3,000-year-old ceremonial complex discovered in 'plain sight'


Category:  Anthropology & Archeology

Via:  freefaller  •  4 years ago  •  5 comments

Massive 3,000-year-old ceremonial complex discovered in 'plain sight'

S E E D E D   C O N T E N T

An enormous 3,000-year-old earthen platform topped with a series of structures, including a 13-foot-high pyramid, has been identified as the oldest and largest monumental construction discovered in the Maya region, according to a paper published today in the journal Nature . It’s the latest discovery to support the emerging view that some of the earliest structures built in the Maya region were significantly larger than those built more than a millennium later during the Classic Maya period (250-900 A.D.), when the empire was at its peak.

The discovery took place in Mexico’s Tabasco State at the site of Aguada Fénix, about 850 miles east of Mexico City. It is in a region known as the Maya lowlands, from which the Maya civilization began to emerge. In 2017, researchers conducted a LiDAR survey that detected the platform and at least nine causeways leading up to it. The groundbreaking laser technology typically is used from aircraft to “see” structures beneath dense tree canopy below, but in this case it revealed a stunning discovery sitting unnoticed in plain sight in Tabasco’s semi-forested ranch lands for centuries, if not millennia.

So why was such a big monument at Aguada Fénix not identified earlier? “It’s fairly hard to explain, but when you walk on the site, you don’t quite realize the enormity of the structure,” says archaeologist Takeshi Inomata of the University of Arizona, the lead author of the paper

The initial construction of the platform is believed to have began around 1,000 B.C. based on radiocarbon dating of charcoal inside the complex. But the absence of any known earlier buildings at Aguada Fénix suggests that at least up until that period, the people living in the region—likely the precursors of the Classic Maya—moved between temporary camps to hunt and gather food. That has researchers speculating over how and why they suddenly decided to build such a massive, permanent structure. Inomata estimates that the total volume of the platform and the buildings on top is at least 130 million cubic feet, meaning it is bigger even than the largest Egyptian pyramid. He also calculated that it would have taken 5,000 people more than six years of full-time

er. “It’s over 30 feet high, but the horizontal dimensions are so large that you don’t realize the height.” “We think this was a ceremonial center,” Inomata says. “[It’s] a place of gathering, possibly involving processions and other rituals we can only imagine.” No residential buildings have been found on or around the structure, so it is unclear how many people may have lived nearby. But the large size of the platform leads Inomata to think that the builders of Aguada Fénix gradually were leaving their hunter-gatherer lifestyle behind, likely aided by the cultivation of corn—evidence of which also has been found at the site.

“The sheer size is astonishing,” says Jon Lohse, an archaeologist with Terracon Consultants Inc. who studies the early history of the area and was not involved in the report. He does not think, however, that the structure itself is evidence of a settled lifestyle. “Monumental constructions by pre-sedentary people are not uncommon globally.”

What it does unmistakably show, Lohse adds, is an advanced ability for people to collaborate, probably in the strongly egalitarian fashion that he believes was typical of early societies in the Maya region. Inomata agrees, and thinks the platform was built by a community without a strong social hierarchy.

As potential evidence, Inomata points to the even older ceremonial site of San Lorenzo, 240 miles to the west in a region that was settled at the time by the Olmec people . Built at least 400 years earlier than Aguada Fénix, San Lorenzo features an artificial terraced hill that may have had a similar function. But it also has colossal human statues that may indicate that some people held higher status in society than others.

It may seem likely that the people who built Aguada Fénix were inspired by San Lorenzo, but archaeologist Ann Cyphers of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, who has worked at San Lorenzo, considers the sites “quite distinct,” adding that the pottery found there is also very different from that found at Aguada Fénix.

So what might have been the purpose for undertaking such a massive communal building project? Study coauthor Verónica Vázquez López of the University of Calgary believes that it might have been a statement of intent: a formal collaboration designed to bring different groups of people together over the course of several generations. Some features at Aguada Fénix could suggest this collaboration, such as a cache of precious jade axes that may have symbolized the end of the collaborative construction project. Archaeologists also have noted that some of the layers of soil used to build the platform were laid down in a checkerboard pattern of different soil colors, which may have symbolized the contribution of different groups. “Even today, people who live in different quarters of some Mexican towns each clean their part of the central church plaza,” Vázquez López observes.

By 750 B.C., the monumental structure at Aguada Fénix was abandoned, and by the Classic Maya period more than 1,000 years later, people in the region were building higher pyramids that became accessible only to the elite atop much smaller platforms with less space for broader communities to gather. “In the early period, people got very excited,” Inomata says. “Later on, they became a bit less enthusiastic.”


jrDiscussion - desc
Professor Quiet
1  seeder  Freefaller    4 years ago

It seems new and exciting discoveries are being made about the Maya every time you turn around.  I believe it's obvious that the Mayans rank among the greatest ancient civilizations in this planet history.

A lot of the discoveries have only been possible through the use of LIDAR.

Professor Principal
2  Kavika     4 years ago
A lot of the discoveries have only been possible through the use of LIDAR.

They sure have. Civilizations and huge cities in Central America have been discovered using LIDAR

As one archeologist said, this is a ''holy shit moment''...

Great discovery and a great article. I love this stuff. 

Thanks, Freefaller.

Professor Principal
2.1  Ender  replied to  Kavika @2    4 years ago

The LIDAR is amazing. They have been able to see roads, how cities were connected, a lot of things.

Professor Quiet
2.2  seeder  Freefaller  replied to  Kavika @2    4 years ago

You're welcome Kavika I love this stuff too.  Ref Guatemala the only down side to that discovery is there's so much to investigate that it will take forever

Professor Participates
3  1stwarrior    4 years ago

And I'm hoping that the book "1491", by Charles Mann is being used for some references as to where to look, utilizing the LIDAR.

In his book, he "hints" at various cities/towns in Central America and some of the information the scientists are discovering/uncovering are proving his "hints".  As one of the writers/scientists of the above article states - nope - this wasn't all jungle - there were massive cities/buildings from the huge cities of both the Mayan and Aztec.


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