Native American Heritage Month to Honor a true American Hero - M/Sgt Roy Benavidez MoH recipent

  
Via:  kavika  •  2 weeks ago  •  27 comments

Native American Heritage Month to Honor a true American Hero - M/Sgt Roy Benavidez MoH recipent

S E E D E D   C O N T E N T



Roy Benavidez




































Raul (Roy) Perez Benavidez
Born August 5, 1935
Died November 29, 1998   (aged 63)
Place of birth Cuero, Texas
Place of death
Brooke Army Medical Center ,   Fort Sam Houston , San Antonio, Texas
Place of burial Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery
Allegiance
23?cb=20080128154249   United States of America
Service/branch
Texas National Guard
United States Army
Years of service 1952 – 1955 (National Guard)
1955 – 1976 (Army)
Rank Master Sergeant
Unit
5th Special Forces Group
Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group   (MACVSOG)
Battles/wars Vietnam War
Awards
Medal of Honor
Distinguished Service Cross
Purple Heart
Texas Legislative Medal of Honor
(partial list)
Other work two autobiographical works

Master Sergeant   Raul (Roy) Perez Benavidez   (August 5, 1935 – November 29, 1998) was a member of the   Studies and Observations Group   of the   United States Army . He received the   Medal of Honor   for his actions in combat near Lộc Ninh,   South Vietnam   on May 2, 1968.


Childhood and early life


Roy P. Benavidez was born in Lindenau near Cuero, Texas in DeWitt County. He was the son of a Mexican father and a   Yaqui   Indian mother. When he was two years old, his father died of tuberculosis and his mother remarried. Five years later, his mother died from tuberculosis too. Benavidez and his younger brother, Roger moved to El Campo, where their grandfather, uncle and aunt raised them along with eight cousins. Benavidez shined shoes at the local bus station, labored on farms in Texas and Colorado, and worked at a tire shop in El Campo. [ citation needed ]   He attended school sporadically, and at the age 15 he dropped out to work full-time to help support the family.


Military career original


In 1952, during the   Korean War , Benavidez enlisted in the   Texas Army National Guard . In June 1955, he enlisted in the regular   United States Army . He married Hilaria Coy Benavidezin 1959, the year he completed his airborne training and was assigned to the   82nd Airborne Division   at   Fort Bragg . In 1965 he was sent to   South Vietnam   as an advisor to an   ARVN   infantry regiment. He stepped on a   land mine   during a patrol and was evacuated to the United States, where doctors at   Fort Sam Houston   concluded he would never walk again and began preparing his   medical discharge   papers. As Benavidez noted in his 1981 MOH acceptance speech, stung by the diagnosis, as well as   flag burnings   and media criticism of the US military presence in Vietnam he saw on TV, he began an unsanctioned nightly training ritual in an attempt to redevelop his ability to walk. Getting out of bed at night (against doctors orders), Benavidez would crawl using his elbows and chin to a wall near his bedside and (with the encouragement of his fellow patients, many of whom were permanently paralyzed and/or missing limbs), he would prop himself against the wall and attempt to lift himself unaided, starting by wiggling his toes, then his feet, and then eventually (after several months of excruciating practice that by his own admission often left him in tears) pushing himself up the wall with his ankles and legs. [1]   After over a year of hospitalization, Benavidez walked out of the hospital in July 1966, with his wife at his side, determined to return to combat in Vietnam.

Benavidez returned to Fort Bragg to begin training for the elite   Studies and Observations Group   (SOG). Despite continuing pain from his wounds, he became a member of the   5th Special Forces Group   and returned to South Vietnam in January 1968. On May 2, 1968, a 12-man Special Forces team was surrounded by a   NVA   battalion. Benavidez heard the radio appeal for help and boarded a helicopter to respond. Armed only with a knife, he jumped from the helicopter carrying a medical bag and rushed to join the trapped team. Benavidez "distinguished himself by a series of daring and extremely glorious actions... and because of his gallant choice to join voluntarily his comrades who were in critical straits, to expose himself constantly to withering enemy fire, and his refusal to be stopped despite numerous severe wounds, saved the lives of at least eight men." He was believed dead after finally being evacuated and was being zipped up in a body bag when he mustered the last of his strength and spit in the face of a medic, thereby alerting nearby medical personnel that he was still alive. (see medal citation below)

Nearly dead from a total of 37 separate   bayonet , bullet and shrapnel wounds received on multiple occasions over the course of the six hour fight between the 13 men and an enemy   battalion , [2]   Benavidez was evacuated once again to Brooke Army Medical Center, where he eventually recovered. For his heroism, the Army awarded him the   Distinguished Service Cross . In 1973, after more detailed accounts became available, Special Forces Lieutenant Colonel Ralph R. Drake insisted that Benavidez receive the   Medal of Honor . By then, however, the time limit on the medal had expired. An appeal to Congress resulted in an exemption for Benavidez, but the Army Decorations Board still denied him the Medal of Honor. The board required an   eyewitness   account from someone present during the action, but Benavidez thought that no others were alive who had been at the "Six Hours in Hell." [ citation needed ]

In 1980, however, Brian O'Connor, a   radioman   in the attacked Special Forces team, provided a ten-page report of the engagement. O'Connor had been severely wounded (Benavidez had believed him dead), and was evacuated to the United States before his superiors could fully debrief him. O'Connor learned that Benavidez was alive by chance. He had been living in the Fiji Islands and was on holiday in Australia when he read a newspaper account of Benavidez from an El Campo newspaper. It had been picked up by the international press and reprinted in Australia. O'Connor soon contacted his old friend and submitted his report, confirming the accounts already provided by others and providing the missing eyewitness. On February 24, 1981,   President   Ronald Reagan   presented Roy P. Benavidez the Medal of Honor. Reagan reportedly turned to the press and said: "If the story of his heroism were a movie script, you would not believe it". He then read the official award citation. [ citation needed ]


Medal of Honor citation original



250px-Roy_Benavidez_MOH_ceremony.jpg

Army Master Sgt. Roy P. Benavidez (center) is flanked by   United States Secretary of Defense   Caspar Weinberger   (left) and President Ronald Reagan at his Medal of Honor presentation ceremony in 1981.

Master Sergeant (then Staff Sergeant) Roy P. Benavidez United States Army, who distinguished himself by a series of daring and extremely valorous actions on 2 May 1968 while assigned to Detachment B56, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, Republic of Vietnam.

 On the morning of 2 May 1968, a 12-man Special Forces Reconnaissance Team was inserted by helicopters in a dense jungle area west of Loc Ninh, Vietnam to gather intelligence information about confirmed large-scale enemy activity. This area was controlled and routinely patrolled by the North Vietnamese Army. After a short period of time on the ground, the team met heavy enemy resistance, and requested emergency extraction. Three helicopters attempted extraction, but were unable to land due to intense enemy small arms and anti-aircraft fire.

Sergeant Benavidez was at the Forward Operating Base in Loc Ninh monitoring the operation by radio when these helicopters returned to off-load wounded crewmembers and to assess aircraft damage. Sergeant Benavidez voluntarily boarded a returning aircraft to assist in another extraction attempt. Realizing that all the team members were either dead or wounded and unable to move to the pickup zone, he directed the aircraft to a nearby clearing where he jumped from the hovering helicopter, and ran approximately 75 meters under withering small arms fire to the crippled team. Prior to reaching the team's position he was wounded in his right leg, face, and head. Despite these painful injuries, he took charge, repositioning the team members and directing their fire to facilitate the landing of an extraction aircraft, and the loading of wounded and dead team members. He then threw smoke canisters to direct the aircraft to the team's position. Despite his severe wounds and under intense enemy fire, he carried and dragged half of the wounded team members to the awaiting aircraft. He then provided protective fire by running alongside the aircraft as it moved to pick up the remaining team members. As the enemy's fire intensified, he hurried to recover the body and classified documents on the dead team leader.

 When he reached the leader's body, Sergeant Benavidez was severely wounded by small arms fire in the abdomen and grenade fragments in his back. At nearly the same moment, the aircraft pilot was mortally wounded, and his helicopter crashed. Although in extremely critical condition due to his multiple wounds, Sergeant Benavidez secured the classified documents and made his way back to the wreckage, where he aided the wounded out of the overturned aircraft, and gathered the stunned survivors into a defensive perimeter. Under increasing enemy automatic weapons and grenade fire, he moved around the perimeter distributing water and ammunition to his weary men, reinstilling in them a will to live and fight. Facing a buildup of enemy opposition with a beleaguered team, Sergeant Benavidez mustered his strength, began calling in tactical air strikes and directed the fire from supporting gunships to suppress the enemy's fire and so permit another extraction attempt.

 He was wounded again in his thigh by small arms fire while administering first aid to a wounded team member just before another extraction helicopter was able to land. His indomitable spirit kept him going as he began to ferry his comrades to the craft. On his second trip with the wounded, he was clubbed from behind by an enemy soldier. In the ensuing hand-to-hand combat, he sustained additional wounds to his head and arms before killing his adversary. [3]  [note 1]   He then continued under devastating fire to carry the wounded to the helicopter. Upon reaching the aircraft, he spotted and killed two enemy soldiers who were rushing the craft from an angle that prevented the aircraft door gunner from firing upon them. With little strength remaining, he made one last trip to the perimeter to ensure that all classified material had been collected or destroyed, and to bring in the remaining wounded.

Only then, in extremely serious condition from numerous wounds and loss of blood, did he allow himself to be pulled into the extraction aircraft. Sergeant Benavidez' gallant choice to join voluntarily his comrades who were in critical straits, to expose himself constantly to withering enemy fire, and his refusal to be stopped despite numerous severe wounds, saved the lives of at least eight men. His fearless personal leadership, tenacious devotion to duty, and extremely valorous actions in the face of overwhelming odds were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service, and reflect the utmost credit on him and the United States Army.   [4]


Retirement original


Despite the severe injuries Master Sergeant Benavidez sustained in Vietnam, he continued serving the Army and was assigned to   Fort Riley , Kansas,   Fort Devens , Massachusetts, and   Fort Sam Houston , Texas. In August 1976 he retired from the United States Army as a Master Sergeant. Benavidez, his wife, and their three children then returned home to El Campo, Texas.

Benavidez devoted his remaining years to the youth of America, speaking to them about the importance of staying in school and getting an education. His message was simple: "An education is the key to success. Bad habits and bad company will ruin you."

In 1983, Benavidez told the press that the   Social Security Administration   planned to cut off disability payments he had been receiving since retirement, as well as the disability payments for thousands of other veterans. He went to Capitol Hill on their behalf and pleaded with the   House Select Committee on Aging   to abandon their plans, which they finally did.

Benavidez was in demand as a speaker by United States armed forces, schools, military and civic groups, and private businesses. He also spoke in Greece, Panama, Korea, and Japan, where he visited American military personnel and even joined them on field exercises. He received complimentary letters from students, service members, and private citizens throughout the world. He wrote three   autobiographical   books about his life and military experience. In 1986, he published   The Three Wars of Roy Benavidez , which described his struggles growing up as a poor Mexican-American orphan, his military training and combat in Vietnam, and the efforts by others to get recognition for his actions in Vietnam. [5]   Benavidez later wrote "The Last Medal of Honor" (Texas: Swan Publishers, 1991) with Pete Billac and   Medal of Honor: A Vietnam Warrior's Story   in 1995. [6]


Death original


Roy Benavidez died on November 29, 1998, at the age of 63 at Brooke Army Medical Center, having suffered respiratory failure and complications of diabetes. [7]   His body was escorted to St. Robert Bellarmine's Catholic Church, where he had married, where his three children were married, where he attended Mass every Sunday. He was then returned to Fort Sam Houston's Main Chapel for a public viewing. Family friend Archbishop Patrick Flores of the San Antonio Dioceses presided over a Catholic funeral mass at San Fernando Cathedral located in San Antonio. Benavidez was buried with full military honors at   Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery .


Awards, honors, and recognitions original



Military decorations original


Among Benavidez's decorations and medals were the following:


Honors and recognitions original Edit


180px-BenavidezElementarySchoolHouston.J

Roy P. Benavidez Elementary School in   Gulfton , Houston, Texas

180px-Texas_National_Guard_in_El_Campo_I

The Texas National Guard   armory   in El Campo

180px-US_Navy_030530-N-0000X-002_Sea_tri

USNS   Benavidez

There are a number of institutions and buildings that bear Benavidez's name. These include:

  • Roy P. Benavidez   American Legion   Post #400 in San Antonio, Texas

  • Roy P. Benavidez Army Reserve Center, NAS Corpus Christi, Texas

  • Roy P. Benavidez Artillery Training Area 67 at   Fort Sill , Oklahoma

  • Roy P. Benavidez City Park in Colorado Springs, Colorado

  • Roy P. Benavidez Elementary School in   Gulfton , Houston, Texas

  • Roy P. Benavidez Elementary School in San Antonio, Texas

  • Roy P. Benavidez Foundation, Inc.

  • Roy P. Benavidez Military Range at   Fort Knox , Kentucky

  • Roy P. Benavidez National Guard Armory in El Campo, Texas

  • Roy P. Benavidez Scholarship Fund in El Campo

  • Roy P. Benavidez Special Operations Logistic Complex at Fort Bragg, North Carolina


  • USNS  Benavidez , a   Bob Hope -class   roll on roll off   vehicle cargo ship

The conference Room owned and operated by the Department of Military Instruction of the United States Military Academy is the "Benavidez Room". Inside the "Benavidez Room" there are signed pictures of MSG Benavidez, the citation from his Medal of Honor, and a   G.I. Joe   toy created in his likeness. The room is used primarily for planning Cadet Summer Military Training and hosting visitors.




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Kavika
1  seeder  Kavika     2 weeks ago

NO POLITICS

M/Sgt Benavidez is a personal hero of mine. 

In the spirit of Crazy Horse

Hoka Hey

 
 
 
NV-Robin6
1.1  NV-Robin6  replied to  Kavika @1    2 weeks ago

Ahh, Kavika! Thank you for sharing his story! I devoured every word. Tears streamed down my cheeks as I strolled down his list of metals and citations from his great accomplishments. He is an amazing hero! Thank the universe for these brave soldiers and the strength they find even living in the midst of some of the most racist dickheads on the planet. What a beautiful man. He looks like he could be my brother. He IS my brother and yours! No wonder why you adore him.  He is one to be worshipped, earning it every day of his life. Learning to walk again, only to sign up again to help his brother soldiers. I'm so glad to see he got the recognition he deserved. A battleship too! How cool is that!

I'm here today because my native ancestors hid their 2 young daughters in tree trunks to hide them right before the US Calvary killed their parents and massacred all the villagers.  My great grandmother was the youngest of the sisters. The older sister wrote about the massacre which her story is held at Humboldt State University library. The sisters were 7 and 9 years old at the time. A wagon master from Oklahoma came upon them, and raised them from that point on. It blows my mind that that is the furthest back I will ever be able to know about my native ancestors. Where as my genealogy on my paternal side dates to the early 1600s. 

 
 
 
Ed-NavDoc
1.2  Ed-NavDoc  replied to  Kavika @1    2 weeks ago

And mine as well. As he was half Hispanic as well, he gets cheered by that community as well. The Master Sergeant was indeed a truly remarkable individual!

 
 
 
Ender
2  Ender    2 weeks ago

Definitely a man I would have wanted fighting by my side.

A life of giving.

 
 
 
Kavika
2.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  Ender @2    2 weeks ago

100 per cent agreement.

 
 
 
Raven Wing
3  Raven Wing    2 weeks ago

A man that not only made his Native American Brothers and Sisters proud, but, all Americans.

May the Creator forever hold him gently in His hands.

nv-wa-do-hi-ya-dv (Peace)

 
 
 
NV-Robin6
3.1  NV-Robin6  replied to  Raven Wing @3    2 weeks ago

Hugging you Sister! 🤗

One day I'll share with you and Kavika what some of my native language was. It's hard for me some days, as its written in my Mother's beautiful cursive handwriting I remember so so well. She took off to her next journey in 2012.  

 
 
 
Raven Wing
3.1.1  Raven Wing  replied to  NV-Robin6 @3.1    2 weeks ago
Hugging you Sister

Thank you dear Sister Robin, and a hug for you as well. jrSmiley_15_smiley_image.gif

Unfortunately I am not totally fluent in Cherokee, but, there was no one around when I was growing up who spoke the language so I only learned a bit from my adoptive Elders on the Cherokee Reservation in Oklahoma when we lived there for a few short years.

I would be most happy to learn some of your native language. (smile)

I am sorry to hear that your Mother walked on. My Mother moved on to the next steps of her own eternal journey in 2006. Perhaps their paths will cross on the other side on day.  (smile)

 
 
 
NV-Robin6
3.1.2  NV-Robin6  replied to  Raven Wing @3.1.1    2 weeks ago

Thank you Dear Raven! Likewise! 

My Grandfather named me Kitachee.  Meaning crayfish. When I learned to crawl, I crawled backwards I'm told. My mother named me Robin because I was chirping like a bird right after I was born.  Still am, I guess.  My son said to me once, "Mom it's a good thing your last name isn't Banks, otherwise you'd be Robin Banks!"

With that said, I was whisked away from my native family. Grew up in WA state all my life.  We had lots of native peoples in my region that shared their heritage with me, but I definitely had a white world  upbringing. I visited my native family a lot growing up though. My grandparents would use their native words which was all Greek to me back then. When I go through this book my Mother wrote, I hear those words being spoke outloud still and it's not so Greek anymore in my adulthood, but rather, the most beautiful words I've ever heard.  One chore I must get done during some rainy winter day is cleaning out my file cabinet.  That's where this book is. I'll email you two a copy of it after I scan it. I do have it scanned but it's on one of my old hard drives.  Will be easier to just rescan it than go through all of them to find it. 

Which this entire seed and chat reminds me of our Native code talkers to whom without, we may not have won WW2. You'd think this country would be a lot more grateful. Some of our nation's are terrorized still to this day by the locust mindset that killed our ancestors. If there were anything I could nail Obama about is not freeing Leonard Peltier. The other being Flint Michigan. 

 
 
 
Raven Wing
3.1.3  Raven Wing  replied to  NV-Robin6 @3.1.2    2 weeks ago

There have been many Native Americans who have served our country along side the colonists and those of other ethnic backgrounds. No matter what the color of our skin, what language we speak, or where we come from, we are all Brothers and Sisters. We are all one. No one of us is any more important than any other, nor does the world belong to any one species. 

Some do not believe this truth, but, many, many more do believe it.

 
 
 
Freedom Warrior
3.1.4  Freedom Warrior  replied to  Raven Wing @3.1.3    2 weeks ago

[Deleted]

 
 
 
†hε pε⊕pレε'š ƒïšh
4  †hε pε⊕pレε'š ƒïšh    2 weeks ago

Impressive career, amazing American and exceptional representative for the Native community oh and a Texan too!

Thanks for the seed.

 
 
 
†hε pε⊕pレε'š ƒïšh
5  †hε pε⊕pレε'š ƒïšh    2 weeks ago
In 1965 he was sent to South Vietnam as an advisor to an ARVN infantry regiment. He stepped on a land mine during a patrol and was evacuated to the United States, where doctors at Fort Sam Houston concluded he would never walk again and began preparing his medical discharge papers. As Benavidez noted in his 1981 MOH acceptance speech, stung by the diagnosis, as well as flag burnings and media criticism of the US military presence in Vietnam he saw on TV, he began an unsanctioned nightly training ritual in an attempt to redevelop his ability to walk. Getting out of bed at night (against doctors orders), Benavidez would crawl using his elbows and chin to a wall near his bedside and (with the encouragement of his fellow patients, many of whom were permanently paralyzed and/or missing limbs), he would prop himself against the wall and attempt to lift himself unaided, starting by wiggling his toes, then his feet, and then eventually (after several months of excruciating practice that by his own admission often left him in tears) pushing himself up the wall with his ankles and legs. [1] After over a year of hospitalization, Benavidez walked out of the hospital in July 1966, with his wife at his side, determined to return to combat in Vietnam.

That is just amazing. I was listening to Joe Rogan's podcast one day and he had The navy Seal on from Texas who is in congress now. Not a political discussion but Joe was talking about rehab of the MMA fighters and the congressman's injuries and said it's just impossible to recover from. He couldn't believe the rehab and return to service. The discussion really opened my eyes to the amazing things people do when they are told they can't.

This American Kavika is a total bad ass. That story is amazing! It shocked me. It's one in a hundred million people that have the will and drive to overcome the impossible and accomplish these sorts of things. The human mind is amazing and this man had the it!

 
 
 
Kavika
5.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  †hε pε⊕pレε'š ƒïšh @5    2 weeks ago

I will post at different times during the month other stories of native Americans that deserved to be recognized.

Both male and female military, scientists, astronauts, civil rights activists, authors, and one of the great political pundits ever. 

 

 
 
 
†hε pε⊕pレε'š ƒïšh
5.1.1  †hε pε⊕pレε'š ƒïšh  replied to  Kavika @5.1    2 weeks ago
civil rights activists, authors, and one of the great political pundits ever. 

Looking forward to it.

 
 
 
 
CB
6  CB     2 weeks ago

MSG Roy Benavidez speech 1991

I am overwhelmed by this video. First there is a presentation of a medal by President Reagan during his presidency. Then, there is this most amazing speech given by Mr.. Benavidez detailing is own story. Y'all it's brilliant. As always in the interest of your individual time, you are free to use the setting wheel on the Youtube video to speed it up to your liking. It is great at any speed!

HIghlights:

Timestamp: 13:30 - 14:17 ('Rope burning' while being airlifted)

Timestamp: 16:30 - 18:37

Timestamp: 20:00

Timestamp: 22:00 (What is a hero)

Timestamp: To the end of the video.

What you will notice is the "warriors' creed" of Benavidez. He is humble to a fault! That is what all who serve in combat learn first and most keep for a lifetime. Humbleness!

 
 
 
Kavika
6.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  CB @6    2 weeks ago

Thanks for posting the video CB....I've watched it before and it is, as you say, powerful,

 
 
 
Paula Bartholomew
7  Paula Bartholomew    2 weeks ago

It would have been a honor to serve with him.  RIP MSG.

 
 
 
Kavika
7.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  Paula Bartholomew @7    2 weeks ago

We were both in Nam at the same time. My second tour his first 1964/65. I did not know him nor did we serve in the same unit. 

I did have a chance to visit his gravesite in Texas...Powerful to say the least.

 
 
 
CB
7.1.1  CB   replied to  Kavika @7.1    2 weeks ago
There is a saying among us veterans: "For those that had fought for it, life has a special flavor the protected will never know."
You have never lived until you have almost died. And, it is us veterans that pray for peace most of all—especially the wounded. Because we have to suffer the wounds of war.
@23:00 MSG Roy Benavidez

An honest and true set of statements indeed.

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
8  Buzz of the Orient    2 weeks ago

One hell of a story, one hell of a man - no questioning needed at the Pearly Gates - they would have opened automatically for him.

 
 
 
MrFrost
9  MrFrost    2 weeks ago

Amazing man, thanks for this Kavika. 

 
 
 
CB
9.1  CB   replied to  MrFrost @9    2 weeks ago

I agree. We are made better when we discover truly magnificent men and women encompassing and surrounding us who do not think of themselves more highly than they ought, instead get it just right.

When I read the article above, watched and listened to the video, and observed President Reagan reading the long citation while Mr. Benavidez stood there still for what seemed an 'eternity,'  and reminded myself of his ordeal to regain the use of his legs, also I can not help but remember words attributed to Jesus:

7 And He began speaking a parable to the invited guests when He noticed how they had been picking out the places of honor at the table, saying to them, 8 “When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor, for someone more distinguished than you may have been invited by him, 9 and he who invited you both will come and say to you, ‘Give your place to this man,’ and then in disgrace you proceed to occupy the last place. 10 “But when you are invited, go and recline at the last place, so that when the one who has invited you comes, he may say to you, ‘Friend, move up higher’; then you will have honor in the sight of all who are at the table with you. 11 “For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted.”

Well done, goodly and honorable soul of a warrior.

 
 
 
Nona62
10  Nona62    2 weeks ago

Good reading Chief!!   Interesting and educational.

 
 
 
JohnRussell
11  JohnRussell    2 weeks ago

A great American hero !

It is good to see such stories giving the American Indian population in our country their due. 

 
 
 
Enoch
12  Enoch    2 weeks ago

Dear Brother Kavika: Great article.

Super patriot.

Thanks for posting.

P&AB.

Enoch.

 
 
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