Ancient Civilization in Iran Recognized Transgender People 3,000 Years Ago, Study Suggests - Archaeology -


Category:  News & Politics

Via:  jbb  •  2 months ago  •  13 comments

By:   Ariel David (Haaretz. com)

Ancient Civilization in Iran Recognized Transgender People 3,000 Years Ago, Study Suggests - Archaeology -
Analysis of Funerary Artifacts in Iron Age Burials at Hasanlu, Iran Indicates There Were Three Different Sets of Offerings: For Males, Females and a 'Third Gender'

S E E D E D   C O N T E N T

Analysis of funerary artifacts in Iron Age burials at Hasanlu, Iran indicates there were three different sets of offerings: for males, females and a 'third gender'

Share in TwitterShare in FacebookSaveSave article to reading listSend in e-mailSend in e-mailShare in FacebookShare in TwitterSend in e-mailSend in e-mailPrint articleSaveSave article to reading listZen ReadOpen gallery view3008673667.jpg?precrop=1751,1749,x449,y0&height=700&width=700 Skeletons of people killed in the massacre of Hasanlu's inhabitants around 800 B.C.E.Credit: Courtesy of the Penn Museum1018316866.jpg?precrop=268,268,x124,y14&height=100&width=100 Ariel David Dec 30, 2018 Get email notification for articles from Ariel David Follow Dec 30, 2018 1018316866.jpg?precrop=268,268,x124,y14&height=100&width=100 Ariel David Dec 30, 2018 Get email notification for articles from Ariel David Follow Dec 30, 2018

As 2018 came to its end, the Trump administration was busying itself with stripping transgender people of official status in U.S. law. It may come as a shock to the White House, but it's trying to erase something that has been recognized by many human societies for thousands of years. Apparently, an enigmatic civilization in Persia may have embraced this diversity by recognizing the existence of a third gender besides "male" and "female" already 3,000 years ago.

That is the theory based on the statistical study of artifacts found in the burials at Hasanlu, an ancient site thousands of years old located in what is today northwestern Iran.

Haaretz Weekly podcast, Episode 10Credit: Haaretz

The study rattles the assumptions archaeologists make about sex and gender in ancient civilizations, and also highlights that many non-western societies - past or present - have a non-binary view of gender.

Male, female and the spectrum

When human remains are found in an archaeological dig, researchers assign them to one sex or the other, if possible, based on the morphology of the skeleton or objects found in the burial, says Megan Cifarelli, an art historian from Manhattanville College, a liberal arts college near New York City. "Embedded in that use of predetermined categories is the assumption that being male or female meant the same thing a long time ago as it does now," she says.

Open gallery viewAn aerial view of the ancient site of Hasanlu.Credit: Courtesy of the Penn Museum

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To eliminate that bias, she ran an algorithm on hundreds of artifacts uncovered in 51 tombs at Hasanlu. The objective: to figure out which objects, particularly clothing items, appear more frequently together, and what that could mean. Cifarelli presented her results in November at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research in Denver.

One cluster of artifacts that tended to appear together included needles, garment pins, and jewelry, and was almost invariably associated with skeletons biologically identifiable as female, her data found.

Another cluster, formed by objects like metal vessels, weapons and armor, was equally strongly correlated with male skeletons.

Open gallery viewA burial in HasanluCredit: Courtesy of the Penn Museum

But the algorithm also showed that around 20 percent of the burials in Hasanlu featured a third cluster of co-occurring objects: unusual combinations of artifacts, of types that accompanied skeletons of both sexes.

For example, one male tomb in this cluster included an arrowhead, traditionally considered a masculine artifact - and a garment pin, which in Hasanlu's culture "is just about the most strongly feminine item there is," Cifarelli says.

Another individual had a blade and a metal drinking cup, and also, a garment pin and needle. It seems the deceased performed masculine ritual activities but also wore feminine dress, says Cifarelli. This person's biological sex was unknown. (Skeletons can be confidently sexed only if they belong to full adults and only if all the necessary bits - especially the pelvis - are found; some forensic scientists say the skull is enough, though the male-female differences are subtler).

In any case, Cifarelli tells Haaretz, there are clearly more than two categories of funerary artifacts in Hasanlu: one can be clearly mapped to women, one to men, and then there's a middle category.

Open gallery viewAn aerial view of the ancient site of HasanluCredit: Courtesy of the Penn Museum

The art historian theorizes that these three groupings of ritual funerary objects signal that the local culture recognized the existence of at least three different genders.

But how can we know that the artifacts were indeed markers of gender rather than indicators of some other social role, or even just random offerings left by grieving relatives?

We cannot be sure, the researcher concedes, but the fact that the two more polarized clusters correlate closely with the biological sex of the deceased suggests that indeed gender identity played a role in the selection of mortuary accouterments.

The Hasanlu loversCredit: YouTube

Also, from an anthropological point of view, these burials appear to be highly ritualized and standardized, she says. There is little chance that the analysis was marred by, say, a woman's spur-of-the-moment decision to drop her favorite earrings into her dearly departed husband's tomb.

"The social categories that appear in burials are more formal, less individualized and generally conservative," she says. "It's a moment for the family to assert this person's social identity."

Bearded and wearing a dress

Open gallery viewA burial in HasanluCredit: Courtesy of the Penn Museum

Her research cannot tell us whether belonging to this putative third gender was purely a matter of individual identity or whether it was a social category created for people who displayed non-conforming physical characteristics, such as intersex people.

We do know that in the cluster of non-binary individuals, around half of the skeletons were identified as male, 20 percent as female and the rest remained unknown.

The male preponderance may be an artifact of the fact that the sample was small, or it may suggest that in this ancient society men had more agency in deciding their gender identity. We will probably never know how these non-binary individuals were called and what role they played, as the people of Hasanlu did not write and have left us precious little information about themselves.

Open gallery viewA golden bowl found by archaeologists in the ruins of Hasanlu.Credit: Courtesy of the Penn Museum

However, Cifarelli believes that traces of this third gender can be discerned in Hasanlu's art, particularly in a golden bowl uncovered there by archaeologists.

Among the figures depicted on the bowl is a bearded man wearing female clothing shown sitting on the floor, a position that local iconography usually reserved for women, Cifarelli says. She thinks this may be a representation of a non-binary person.

Hasanlu, a low-lying mound close to Iran's border with Turkey and Iraq, was excavated extensively by the University of Pennsylvania from the 1950s to the 1970s.

In the Bronze Age and Iron Age it was a prosperous city that became increasingly contested among two neighboring powers, the Assyrian empire and Urartu, a kingdom based in today's eastern Turkey and Armenia. Hasanlu is also known as the Pompeii of the Near East because around 800 B.C.E. the city was sacked and destroyed, probably by the Urartians. The conquerors massacred the inhabitants and torched the place, leaving a layer of destruction with dozens of skeletons perfectly preserved by the ash and rubble.

The most famous of these remains are the so-called Hasanlu Lovers, two people who appear locked in a tender embrace. Since both the skeletons are believed to be male, this discovery has long fueled a debate over love and sexuality in this ancient culture.

The skeletons of Hasanlu's massacred inhabitants, many of them horribly mutilated, were not part of Cifarelli's study, since they were not properly buried. She focused on actual tombs from an earlier time, spanning about 250 years, from a previous destruction of the city around 1050 B.C.E. up to its final fall to Urartu.

During this period, probably because of mounting threats in the neighborhood, the city underwent a process of militarization. Massive fortifications were built and weapons began to appear amongst funerary offerings.

Cifarelli notes that artifacts found in burials prior to the 1050 B.C.E. destruction did not show such an intense polarization between genders, however many there were at the time. "It's an anthropological truism that, in times of crisis, whatever divisions you have become more distinct," she explains.

Open gallery viewA view of the fortified citadel of HasanluCredit: Courtesy of the Penn Museum

She hopes to find other large data sets on funerary artifacts from around the world to prove her method works and identify other ancient societies that did not see gender in binary terms. Looking at groups from the more recent past that were either documented by anthropologists or survived to this day, non-binary gender is extremely common, she says.

For example, researchers have learned that Native American societies had, collectively, more than 100 different gender expressions, with some tribes recognizing the existence of up to five genders.

In most cases, this pluralistic world view was quashed by colonial rule, which imposed laws and mores that forcibly introduced European concepts of sex and gender based on Judeo-Christian values. But in some places, alternative concepts still survive. India officially recognizes a third gender that groups together the Hijras, who are eunuchs, intersex or transgender people who have been respected figures in Hindu culture for millennia. In some native cultures of southern Mexico, the traditional division into three genders has survived, while the Bugis of Indonesia recognize five genders.

Even in the heart of Catholic Italy, in Naples, there is the centuries-old phenomenon of femminielli , biological males who dress and behave as women. They are respected figures, traditionally believed to bring good luck, which may date back to pagan rituals of crossdressing, or eunuch priests.

In the West, this vast anthropological and archeological evidence of multiple gender expression is often willfully ignored, says Cifarelli, citing the U.S. government's attempts to define gender as binary and unchangeable, or the frequent controversies over testing and excluding female athletes suspected of being intersex.

"In Western societies, the impulse to stick people into those two boxes - male or female - is very persistent," she says. "My point is that there's this enormous range, flexibility and fluidity in the world, and we should recognize it." If people from the Iron Age who had no writing could embrace diversity - perhaps even Donald Trump can do it too!


jrDiscussion - desc
Professor Principal
1  seeder  JBB    2 months ago

No Virginia, societal acceptance of transexuality is not something new!

Vic Eldred
Professor Principal
2  Vic Eldred    2 months ago

"Though many early accounts of cannibalism probably were exaggerated or in error, the practice prevailed until modern times in parts of West and Central Africa, Melanesia (especially Fiji ),  New Guinea Australia , among the  Maoris  of  New Zealand , in some of the islands of Polynesia, among tribes of  Sumatra , and in various tribes of  North  and  South America ."

In western civilization it has not been regarded as "normal."

Professor Principal
2.1  seeder  JBB  replied to  Vic Eldred @2    2 months ago

That some people lived as the opposite sex in ancient Mesopotamia, Rome, Greece, Egypt amplifies the fact that transexualism is nothing new, was widely accepted and does not compare with cannibalism, which was never ever acceptable in any civilized cultures...

Vic Eldred
Professor Principal
2.1.1  Vic Eldred  replied to  JBB @2.1    2 months ago

"In a Nov. 8 interview with the Prostasia Foundation, a San Francisco-based nonprofit organization purportedly dedicated to safeguarding kids, Allyn Walker offered various explanations and excuses for pedophiles—or as he calls them, “minor-attracted people.”

Walker, an assistant professor of   sociology and criminal justice at Old Dominion University   in Norfolk, Virginia,   said , “A lot of people when they hear the term ‘pedophile,’ they automatically assume that it means a sex offender, and that isn’t true, and it leads to a lot of misconceptions about attractions towards minors.”



  • 1. bring or return to a normal or standard condition or state: "the situation had   normalized "
  • 2. multiply (a series, function or item of data) by a factor that makes the norm or some associated quantity such as an integral equal to a desired value (usually 1): "both sets of data have been   normalized   such that the lowest value is equal to 1"

    I hope you got my point.
Professor Principal
2.1.2  seeder  JBB  replied to  Vic Eldred @2.1.1    2 months ago

No I do not get your point because paedophile has nothing whatsoever to do with transexualism and it surely insults the intelligence of every thinking person reading this that you think harming children compares with gender dysphoria!

Sean Treacy
Professor Expert
2.1.3  Sean Treacy  replied to  Vic Eldred @2.1.1    2 months ago

That's probably next.

The same people who will say that's crazy to suggest would have said the same thing about having trans strippers in schools 20 years ago. 

Professor Principal
2.1.4  seeder  JBB  replied to  Sean Treacy @2.1.3    2 months ago

If you know of any transexuals stripping in any American public schools then you must immediately notify the authorities!

If you are making wild unascerted false accusations STFU!

Sean Treacy
Professor Expert
2.1.5  Sean Treacy  replied to  JBB @2.1.4    2 months ago
If you know of any transexuals stripping in any American public schools you must notify the authorities immediately

Lol.  Haven't you played this game enough?  First, you say it will never happen.  Then when proof of it happening occurs, you say "of course it happens!, it's great that it happens!"

Just skip to the part where you say it's great and spare us the theatrics. 

Professor Principal
2.1.6  seeder  JBB  replied to  Sean Treacy @2.1.5    2 months ago


Do you also believe that they put litter boxes in public elementary schools for the furbies? How ridiculous can you get!

Sean Treacy
Professor Expert
2.1.7  Sean Treacy  replied to  JBB @2.1.6    2 months ago


But while Drag Queen Story Hour has been the most recognizable and organized drag event for children, some schools have gone further and hosted drag shows that involved scantily clad cross-dressers engaging in provocative dance routines, a practice that prompted one Pennsylvania school district to apologize after parent backlash.

The outrage from the Pennsylvania incident was brought in part by the fact that the parents of children at the school were largely kept in the dark about the event prior to its occurrence, something Sanzi said is a recurring theme.

"Oftentimes, parents don't even know about this until their kid is, like, 'Oh, yeah, there was, like, a guy gyrating in a G-string on the stage today at school,'" Sanzi said. "If you're thinking of drag as ... a dress and a wig, then I could see why you might think, 'God, like, what's the big deal?' [But] that's not what we're talking about."

"There's a lot of skin showing there in very provocative positions. It's hypersexualized dancing in a school or at an after-school club meeting that's ... taking place on school grounds," she said.

A child is taught to tip a drag queen for performing at a “family-friendly” drag show in Washington

OUTRAGE: Underage students perform in drag for staff at invite-only school even

Adult entertainment used to mean adults going to strip clubs, watching other adults engage in sexual behavior. Well now, thanks to this board, we see adult entertainment as a bunch of high school staff watching young children for their entertainment.”

Mark in Wyoming
Professor Silent
2.1.8  Mark in Wyoming   replied to  JBB @2.1.6    2 months ago

well if one of my kids came home from school saying they identified as an animal such as a cat , i likely would have handled it like i saw on face book in a joke post .

 Child : dad i no longer think im a ( blank) , i think im a cat .

 dad: really? Ok , well get away from  the table you mangy cat  people are getting ready to eat .

child : well where am i suppose to eat ?

dad: your food is in a bowl in the corner of the kitchen ,  seafood surprise , now git.

 child; bewilderment and tears build .

dad : hunny has that thing been spayed / neutered ( as the case may be )

Mom : i was going to make the appointment tomorrow .

child : WHAAAAAAT!!!?

 Dad: right we dont want to be contributing to any more unwanted cats in the neighborhood , we must be responsible .BTW did you clean the cats bedding outside ? we dont want any mangy cats living in the house at night . oh and dont forget to put the ad in the paper to rent out that spare room we have .

 Child : Dad? i dont think im a cat .

 Dad: good now sit down at the table and eat your supper and then go do your homework .

Totally believe in honoring a childs belief they are whatever they want to be , it also serves as a lesson they will be treated as such as well.

Professor Principal
2.1.9  seeder  JBB  replied to  Sean Treacy @2.1.7    2 months ago

Shriners and Rotarians have been staging family friendly drag shows as fundraisers for eons. And, so does our Army and Navy!

If this old guy can fill a normally empty public library on Saturday morning to teach kids about the joy of reading and entertain them by reading funny kid appropriate children's books while parents and librarians supervise, then what in the hell is your big problem?


Were you that traumatized seeing Flip Wilson playing Geraldine? 

Professor Principal
2.1.10  seeder  JBB  replied to  Mark in Wyoming @2.1.8    2 months ago

If my child showed any signs of needing psychological help then I would get it for them and I certainly would not dismiss it any more than I would let a bad cough or a skin condition go untreated...


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