Closest-known ancestor of today’s Native Americans found in Siberia

  
Via:  kavika  •  6 months ago  •  30 comments

Closest-known ancestor of today’s Native Americans found in Siberia

S E E D E D   C O N T E N T



Indigenous Americans, who include Alaska Natives, Canadian First Nations, and Native Americans, descend from humans who crossed an ancient land bridge connecting Siberia in Russia to Alaska tens of thousands of years ago. But scientists are unclear when and where these early migrants moved from place to place. Two new studies shed light on this mystery and uncover the most closely related Native American ancestor outside North America.

In the first study, researchers led by Eske Willerslev, a geneticist at the University of Copenhagen, sequenced the whole genomes of 34 individuals who lived in Siberia, the land bridge Beringia, and Alaska from 600 to nearly 32,000 years ago. The oldest individuals in the sample—two men who lived in far northern Siberia—represent the earliest known humans from that part of the world. There are no direct genetic traces of these men in any of the other groups the team surveyed, suggesting their culture likely died out about 23,000 years ago when the region became too cold to be inhabitable.

Elsewhere on the Eurasian continent, however, a group arose that would eventually move into Siberia, splinter, and cross Beringia into North America, the DNA analysis reveals. A woman known as Kolyma1, who lived in northeastern Siberia about 10,000 years ago, shares about two-thirds of her genome with living Native Americans. “It’s the closest we have ever gotten to a Native American ancestor outside the Americas,” Willerslev says. Still, notes Ben Potter, an archaeologist at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks who was not involved with the work, the relation is nevertheless distant.


Based on the time it would have taken for key mutations to pop up, the ancestors of today’s Native Americans   splintered off from these ancient Siberians about 24,000 years ago , roughly matching up with previous archaeological and genetic evidence for when the   peopling of the Americas   occurred, the team reports today in   Nature.

Additional DNA evidence suggests a third wave of migrants, the Neo-Siberians, moved into northeastern Siberia from the south sometime after 10,000 years ago. These migrants mixed with the ancient Siberians, planting the genetic roots of many of the area’s present-day populations.


MigrationMap-1280x720.jpg?itok=NAHFVEgf



Different groups have mixed and migrated throughout Siberia in Russia and into North America over the past 40,000 years




The results are exciting, if a bit unsurprising, says Connie Mulligan, an anthropologist at the University of Florida in Gainesville. “To me, it makes total sense that there were a lot of populations migrating through the region and replacing each other, with some of them moving into the Americas.”

In the second study, led by biologist Pavel Flegontov at the University of Ostrava in the Czech Republic and also appearing today in Nature, Potter and colleagues attempt to uncover the roots of a genetic family known to scientists as Paleo-Eskimos (although this term is disputed by Indigenous groups themselves). Archaeological records suggest the ancestors of these individuals moved into modern-day Alaska and the Canadian Arctic about 5000 years ago, but how they relate to modern groups remains a mystery.

The scientists analyzed the genomes of 48 ancient individuals from sites in the North American Arctic and Siberia dating from between about 7000 to 300 years ago. They then compared their DNA to those of other modern and ancient Indigenous people across northern North America and looked for patterns in shared ancestry and language families.

Paleo-Eskimos originating in Siberia  crossed Beringia about 5000 years ago , mixing with indigenous Americans from a previous wave of Siberian migrants, as well as a much later lineage called Neo-Eskimos, the team concludes. This tangled family tree underpins the ancestry of modern speakers of indigenous Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut languages.

Based on the DNA analysis, the group that gave rise to Kolyma1 identified by Willerslev’s team may be the ancestors, or very close relations, of the Paleo-Eskimos. “[They are] in the right spot to be ancestors, or related in some way, to the Paleo-Eskimos that expanded into North America around 5000 years ago,” Potter says. “It fits together really nicely.”


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doi:10.1126/science.aay2891


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Kavika
1  seeder  Kavika     6 months ago

The more we learn it seems the less we know about the origins of American Indians. Every new discovery leads to old theories being tossed and a ''new'' theory taking it's place. 

Now this is really interesting...Another discovery in the same area...

Are they connected. Are Native Americans part of this group of newly discovered people...

Unknown Group of Ancient Humans Once Lived in Siberia, New Evidence Reveals

https://www.livescience.com/65654-dna-ice-age-teeth-siberia.html

 
 
 
Gordy327
1.1  Gordy327  replied to  Kavika @1    6 months ago
Every new discovery leads to old theories being tossed and a ''new'' theory taking it's place. 

That's the beauty of science.

Now this is really interesting...Another discovery in the same area...

Interesting indeed.

 
 
 
WallyW
1.2  WallyW  replied to  Kavika @1    5 months ago

What is your opinion as to whether Pacific Islanders made it to the Americas. Or perhaps the reverse?

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/how-voyage-kon-tiki-misled-world-about-navigating-pacific-180952478/

 
 
 
dave-2693993
1.2.1  dave-2693993  replied to  WallyW @1.2    5 months ago

I think there is a degree of compelling evidence for that, both with regard to strains of vegetables and maybe some domesticated animals.

Though, not hip on that Aryan aspect discussed.

 
 
 
Kavika
1.2.2  seeder  Kavika   replied to  WallyW @1.2    5 months ago
What is your opinion as to whether Pacific Islanders made it to the Americas. Or perhaps the reverse?

I feel that it's not only possible but very probable. Kon Tiki proved that one should sail from the west coast of the Americas to the Pacific. 

The Polynesians were and are great seaman. The South Pacific and Micronesia were not settled by flying there. When you think of the distances it's astounding. New Zealand is a perfect example.

There have been discoveries on bones on the Pacific Coast of Mexico that are dated back thousands of years that are not native of the Americas and are Polynesian and Austrial.

There were studies that found Native American DNA in the people of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) creating a whole series of questions. 

Interesting article BTW. Not surprising that there are some that believe that the Polynesians didn't have the advanced tech to accomplish what they did. The eurocentric view. 

 
 
 
Kavika
1.2.3  seeder  Kavika   replied to  Kavika @1.2.2    5 months ago

Throw this into the mix...The super continent of Gondwana when South America was connected to what is now Australia....Is it possible that the people of Australia traveled north? 

It was thought that the aboriginals of Australia had only been there for 10,000 years. Then ''Mud Lake Man'' was discovered and that moved the settling of Australia back 50,000 years. 

Anything is possible. 

 
 
 
dave-2693993
1.3  dave-2693993  replied to  Kavika @1    5 months ago
The more we learn it seems the less we know about the origins of American Indians. Every new discovery leads to old theories being tossed and a ''new'' theory taking it's place. 

Interesting. That is the way it is going.

If I understand correctly, this re-substantiates the wave, after wave, after wave theory.

This is an interesting division between the ancient Siberians and The American Natives, unless something has changed recently.

Namely, the weapons and hunting tools. One key factor which is, often used as a gauge in determining relationships and or, forks in a road.

For example the Siberians are noted for their serrated spear or arrow "points" made by embedding contiguous small shards of stone flakes into grooves cut into, say,a conical piece of ivory, bone, or even wood, which is different than what is commonly found in North America.

Though some "Clovis" type point(s) have been found in Siberia under layers of volcanic ash. However, the dating of the points to 8,300 yr BP, which is curiously close to the 8,200 yr BP global cooling event (interesting topic in itself). Nonetheless, this timing allows for more than enough time for a reverse migration and when some theories behind the 8,200 yr BP cooling event, a reverse migration could be understandable.

It all points to a "gee there were a couple migrations" perspective.

May the new discoveries continue.

 
 
 
Kavika
1.3.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  dave-2693993 @1.3    5 months ago
It all points to a "gee there were a couple migrations" perspective.

I believe that to be true and also not all were from across the Bering Strait..Some from the Pacific/Polynesia were involved. 

The discovery of ''Montana Boy'' and his DNA made the connection between modern day natives and the Clovis people. 

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/02/native-americans-descend-ancient-montana-boy

May the new discoveries continue.

Absolutely 

 
 
 
cjcold
1.4  cjcold  replied to  Kavika @1    5 months ago

So that land bridge thingy wasn't real until just now? Seems I recall learning about it in grade school 50 years ago.

 
 
 
Kavika
1.4.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  cjcold @1.4    5 months ago

The land bridge theory has been around for decades...It has been changed as to the dates/time frame and how the peoples disbursed throughout the continent.

Part of that includes the ''kelp highway'' movement of some of the peoples via water down the west coast of the U.S. There is a lot of evidence of that as well.

 

 
 
 
Kavika
2  seeder  Kavika     6 months ago
That's the beauty of science.

Indeed it is Gordy. That and the advances in radar/drones have discovered total civilizations that were unknown to us just a few short years ago. 

For the time being I'm sticking with my nookomis and misnomis (grandmother and grandfather) theory...

''We have always been here''...

Never argue with your grandparents..LOL

 
 
 
Sister Mary Agnes Ample Bottom
2.1  Sister Mary Agnes Ample Bottom  replied to  Kavika @2    5 months ago
'We have always been here''... Never argue with your grandparents..LOL

You don't have to tell me twice!

 
 
 
Raven Wing
3  Raven Wing    6 months ago

Very interesting update of information. Thank you for sharing it with us Kavika. 

 
 
 
Kavika
3.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  Raven Wing @3    6 months ago

You're welcome RW.

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
4  Buzz of the Orient    6 months ago

Seems to me that the more we learn, the less we know. 

 
 
 
Kavika
5  seeder  Kavika     6 months ago
Seems to me that the more we learn, the less we know.

Ain't that the truth.

 
 
 
Perrie Halpern R.A.
6  Perrie Halpern R.A.    5 months ago

Totally cool info Kavika. I am not shocked though to find out that man came to NA over 40,000 years ago. Now at least, there is proof! 

 
 
 
Kavika
6.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  Perrie Halpern R.A. @6    5 months ago

What is interesting is that the date keeps moving back and back in time. From 6,000 years ago (eurocentric) to where we are at today. 

The discovery of whole civilizations that were totally unknown until the last few years in Central and South America...

It's an exciting time for discoveries. 

 
 
 
1stwarrior
6.1.1  1stwarrior  replied to  Kavika @6.1    5 months ago

Not to mention the 150,000 "potential" evidence of human habitation outside of San Diego.

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/04/mastodons-americas-peopling-migrations-archaeology-science/

 
 
 
Kavika
6.1.2  seeder  Kavika   replied to  1stwarrior @6.1.1    5 months ago

That is really going to be interesting. Just imagine if the settling of the Americas was moved back 150,000 years. 

 
 
 
TᵢG
6.2  TᵢG  replied to  Perrie Halpern R.A. @6    5 months ago

You will never convince the Young Earth Creationists.    

jrSmiley_82_smiley_image.gif

 
 
 
Kavika
6.2.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  TᵢG @6.2    5 months ago
You will never convince the Young Earth Creationists.

LOL, probably not.

 
 
 
Enoch
7  Enoch    5 months ago

Dear Brother Kavika:

Great article.

Please keep them coming.

P&AB.

E.

 
 
 
Kavika
7.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  Enoch @7    5 months ago

Thanks niijii. 

It's a pretty exciting time for discoveries in the Americas. 

 
 
 
TᵢG
8  TᵢG    5 months ago

Piecing together the bits of our history is fascinating.   It is amazing the kind of information we are capable of discerning nowadays.

 
 
 
Kavika
8.1  seeder  Kavika   replied to  TᵢG @8    5 months ago

Some of the recent discoveries using drones/radar etc have been amazing. Complete civilizations that we were totally unaware of that numbered in the hundreds of thousands of people.

The lost cities/civilizations of Central and South Ameirca over the last few years are astounding.

 
 
 
TᵢG
8.1.1  TᵢG  replied to  Kavika @8.1    5 months ago

And then, once found, imagine all we can discover from the DNA.

 
 
 
Kavika
8.1.2  seeder  Kavika   replied to  TᵢG @8.1.1    5 months ago
And then, once found, imagine all we can discover from the DNA.

Exactly. When you add in the study of linguistics to the mix the results can be amazing. 

Most linguists have said for decades that Native Americans have been in North America for a minimum of 50,000 years. This based on how language is developed and spread. 

Fun stuff. 

 
 
 
TᵢG
8.1.3  TᵢG  replied to  Kavika @8.1.2    5 months ago

Excellent point, language evolves too and thus imparts substantial knowledge including insight into their culture.

 
 
 
Kavika
8.1.4  seeder  Kavika   replied to  TᵢG @8.1.3    5 months ago

It's an exciting time, each new discovery opens up numerous new questions...

 
 
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