Rare Earth Elements: Where in the World Are They?

  

Category:  News & Politics

Via:  tig  •  3 weeks ago  •  41 comments

By:   Nicholas LePan (Visual Capitalist)

Rare Earth Elements: Where in the World Are They?
Rare earth elements are the critical ingredients for a greener economy, making their reserves increasingly valuable to global supply chains.

China's rare earth dominance gives it a major upper hand given the future of the planet depends upon rare earth elements.

[ An older article but still highly relevant. ]


S E E D E D   C O N T E N T



Rare-Earth-Elements.jpg

Rare Earths Elements: Where in the World Are They?


Rare earth elements are a group of metals that are critical ingredients for a greener economy, and the location of the reserves for mining are increasingly important and valuable.

This infographic features data from the United States Geological Society (USGS) which reveals the countries with the largest known reserves of rare earth elements (REEs).

What are Rare Earth Metals?


REEs, also called rare earth metals or rare earth oxides, or lanthanides, are a set of 17 silvery-white soft heavy metals.

The 17 rare earth elements are: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), scandium (Sc), and yttrium (Y).

Scandium and yttrium are not part of the lanthanide family, but end users include them because they occur in the same mineral deposits as the lanthanides and have similar chemical properties.

The term "rare earth" is a misnomer as rare earth metals are actually abundant in the Earth's crust. However, they are rarely found in large, concentrated deposits on their own, but rather among other elements instead.

Rare Earth Elements, How Do They Work?


Most rare earth elements find their uses as catalysts and magnets in traditional and low-carbon technologies. Other important uses of rare earth elements are in the production of special metal alloys, glass, and high-performance electronics.

Alloys of neodymium (Nd) and samarium (Sm) can be used to create strong magnets that withstand high temperatures, making them ideal for a wide variety of mission critical electronics and defense applications.

End-use % of 2019 Rare Earth Demand
Permanent Magnets 38%
Catalysts 23%
Glass Polishing Powder and Additives 13%
Metallurgy and Alloys 8%
Battery Alloys 9%
Ceramics, Pigments and Glazes 5%
Phosphors 3%
Other 4%

Source

The strongest known magnet is an alloy of neodymium with iron and boron. Adding other REEs such as dysprosium and praseodymium can change the performance and properties of magnets.

Hybrid and electric vehicle engines, generators in wind turbines, hard disks, portable electronics and cell phones require these magnets and elements. This role in technology makes their mining and refinement a point of concern for many nations.

For example, one megawatt of wind energy capacity requires 171 kg of rare earths, a single U.S. F-35 fighter jet requires about 427 kg of rare earths, and a Virginia-class nuclear submarine uses nearly 4.2 tonnes.

Global Reserves of Rare Earth Minerals

China tops the list for mine production and reserves of rare earth elements, with 44 million tons in reserves and 140,000 tons of annual mine production.

While Vietnam and Brazil have the second and third most reserves of rare earth metals with 22 million tons in reserves and 21 million tons, respectively, their mine production is among the lowest of all the countries at only 1,000 tons per year each.

Country Mine Production 2020 Reserves % of Total Reserves
China 140,000 44,000,000 38.0%
Vietnam 1,000 22,000,000 19.0%
Brazil 1,000 21,000,000 18.1%
Russia 2,700 12,000,000 10.4%
India 3,000 6,900,000 6.0%
Australia 17,000 4,100,000 3.5%
United States 38,000 1,500,000 1.3%
Greenland - 1,500,000 1.3%
Tanzania - 890,000 0.8%
Canada - 830,000 0.7%
South Africa - 790,000 0.7%
Other Countries 100 310,000 0.3%
Burma 30,000 N/A N/A
Madagascar 8,000 N/A N/A
Thailand 2,000 N/A N/A
Burundi 500 N/A N/A
World Total 243,300 115,820,000 100%

While the United States has 1.5 million tons in reserves, it is largely dependent on imports from China for refined rare earths.

Ensuring a Global Supply

In the rare earth industry, China's dominance has been no accident. Years of research and industrial policy helped the nation develop a superior position in the market, and now the country has the ability to control production and the global availability of these valuable metals.

This tight control of the supply of these important metals has the world searching for their own supplies. With the start of mining operations in other countries, China's share of global production has fallen from 92% in 2010 to 58%85% of the world's refined rare earths in 2020.

China awards production quotas to only six state-run companies:

  • China Minmetals Rare Earth Co
  • Chinalco Rare Earth & Metals Co
  • Guangdong Rising Nonferrous
  • China Northern Rare Earth Group
  • China Southern Rare Earth Group
  • Xiamen Tungsten

As the demand for REEs increases, the world will need tap these reserves. This graphic could provide clues as to the next source of rare earth elements.


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TᵢG
Professor Principal
1  seeder  TᵢG    3 weeks ago
In the rare earth industry, China's dominance has been no accident. Years of research and industrial policy helped the nation develop a superior position in the market, and now the country has the ability to control production and the global availability of these valuable metals.

The nations which provide the most rare earth elements are not the ones on which we would want to be dependent.

 
 
 
Perrie Halpern R.A.
Professor Principal
1.1  Perrie Halpern R.A.  replied to  TᵢG @1    3 weeks ago

Very slim pickings when dealing with friendly governments. I would say that Brazil is our best choice, but they are underproducing at the moment.

 
 
 
Kavika
Professor Principal
1.1.1  Kavika   replied to  Perrie Halpern R.A. @1.1    3 weeks ago

I would take Vietnam over Brazil. If Bolosorano loses in the next election then perhaps Brazil might be next on the list.

 
 
 
Ender
Professor Principal
2  Ender    3 weeks ago

I know I know, I am an earthly rare element. No need to write about it...s/

The only problem I see is if war broke out. Otherwise I say let them dig up and destroy their own countries. All we have to do is buy.

 
 
 
TᵢG
Professor Principal
2.1  seeder  TᵢG  replied to  Ender @2    3 weeks ago
All we have to do is buy.

Monopolies are a bad thing.   What happens if China/Russia decides to up the price or hold rare earth elements as a bargaining chip?

 
 
 
Ender
Professor Principal
2.1.1  Ender  replied to  TᵢG @2.1    3 weeks ago

Can be a double edge sword Imo. If no one buys their minerals they would make concessions I would think.

Look how much it impacts a country when their oil is not purchased.

 
 
 
TᵢG
Professor Principal
2.1.2  seeder  TᵢG  replied to  Ender @2.1.1    3 weeks ago

Key is that we do not have the option to not buy.   These elements are essential to the present and future.    We must buy from somewhere and the uber-suppliers are not nations on whom we want to depend.

 
 
 
Ender
Professor Principal
2.1.3  Ender  replied to  TᵢG @2.1.2    3 weeks ago

Seems going green is not very green.

 
 
 
TᵢG
Professor Principal
2.1.4  seeder  TᵢG  replied to  Ender @2.1.3    3 weeks ago

There is a good argument to be made in support of that (at least in the early stages).

 
 
 
Split Personality
Professor Principal
3  Split Personality    3 weeks ago

Very slim pickings but I wonder how much material is every American garage or home office?

I have two towers & 3 laptops, at least one very fancy monitor that needs a capacitor, VCRs, chargers

in a box in the garage waiting for months, maybe more, for me to call the recycler to pick up.

In the office a we have a pile of old Apple phones that can (should) be donated or recycled.

Remember that WWII was won with scrap drives.  5 million tons of metal in the first month?

Can you imagine what's in some of our landfills?  69 million pounds?

National Overview: Facts and Figures on Materials, Wastes and Recycling | US EPA

 
 
 
Kavika
Professor Principal
3.1  Kavika   replied to  Split Personality @3    3 weeks ago

Currently between one and five % of REE are being recycled. There are some difficulties in doing it and there are a number of companies that are working on making it easier and quicker.

 
 
 
charger 383
Professor Quiet
3.2  charger 383  replied to  Split Personality @3    3 weeks ago

One day we will dig up landfills to get what was dumped there 

 
 
 
magicschoolbusdropout
Freshman Principal
4  magicschoolbusdropout    3 weeks ago

Rare earth elements

Are Just as Environmentally Unfriendly to mine in this country as "Coal" and Fracking Was.

Mountain Top Clearing, Massive Hole Digging, and Chemical Injection will need to start all over again.

Now, Since Brandon Requires Manufacturers of EV Cars to have their Products and materials "ONLY made and MINED"  in the United States in order for the ones to get this "Tax Insentive", will folks be more than willing to go "Green"...... IN ORDER TO SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT ?

LMFAO !

 
 
 
mocowgirl
Professor Quiet
5  mocowgirl    3 weeks ago

Thought this might be a worthwhile item to add to your seed.

Op-ed | The Rare Earth Ripple Effect of Russia’s War on Ukraine   - SpaceNews

Of mounting concern is the  sourcing and mining of Rare Earth minerals  – also commonly known as Rare Earth Elements, or REEs for short.

And as the war between Russia and Ukraine grinds on, disruptions in things like REEs will only grow in importance. 

Of course, Russia’s vast mineral wealth is well known – which is now constricted for world export due to sanctions.  But Ukraine, long been considered an agricultural “breadbasket,” has also become increasingly recognized for its mineral abundance. For example, Ukraine is estimated to hold upwards of 500,000 tons of lithium oxide — a core mineral for modern batteries. Ukraine also has major energy deposits and precious metals such as Titanium.  

Challenges ahead

With the war physically devastating Ukraine, and economically truncating Russian connectivity to world markets, the impact of these developments on the global supply of crucial raw materials must be taken seriously. In fact, before Russia invaded Ukraine, market analysts were already warning of the potential impact of war on the global semiconductor market, suggesting that chip prices could spike several hundred times over due to REE sourcing; market research groups indicated that 35% of  U.S.-bound palladium comes from Russia . Ukraine also  provides the bulk  of U.S. semiconductor-grade neon supplies.   
 
 
 
Split Personality
Professor Principal
5.1  Split Personality  replied to  mocowgirl @5    3 weeks ago

Weren't we told that China would build the Belt & Road through the Whakjhir Pass to get to

the mountains of rare earth minerals and other raw ores and expand their toehold there?

Hasn't happened, nor has anyone in Afghanistan sought to cash in yet.

No capitalism, no progress?

 
 
 
mocowgirl
Professor Quiet
5.1.1  mocowgirl  replied to  Split Personality @5.1    3 weeks ago
No capitalism, no progress?

I have much difficulty understanding the government and capitalists in the US. I rarely try to second guess the owners of China.  

 
 
 
Kavika
Professor Principal
6  Kavika     3 weeks ago

Afghanistan is rated 6th in the world for rare earth metals, plus billions of dollars or iron ore and other minerals. This is an article from 2011 on it and there have been more recent articles confirming that massive deposits of rare earth metals and other minerals. 

 
 
 
GregTx
Junior Participates
6.1  GregTx  replied to  Kavika @6    3 weeks ago

Maybe why China was in such a hurry to establish diplomatic relations with the Taliban after our withdrawal. 

 
 
 
Kavika
Professor Principal
6.1.1  Kavika   replied to  GregTx @6.1    3 weeks ago

in 2007 China signed a $2 plus billion dollar deal to mine in Afghanistan, they have not mined anything after the signing of the deal. Here is a good article on China/Afghanistan rare earth metals. The section about the ''lithium triangle'' in South America is really interesting.

 
 
 
pat wilson
Professor Guide
6.2  pat wilson  replied to  Kavika @6    3 weeks ago

And one of three places in the world where you find Lapis Lazuli.

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
Professor Principal
7  Buzz of the Orient    3 weeks ago

I've wondered what China's eventual reaction might be when America banned Huawei, imposed significant tariffs on Chinese products, blacklisted a number of Chinese corporations, banned the sale of certain kinds of microchips to China, demonized and bashed China, formed organizations of other nations to pressure China, provoked China by disregarding the One China Policy that the USA says it still honours (like hell it does), passing resolutions interfering in China's domestic affairs, etc etc etc.  Obviously the trade benefits with the USA are more important to China than blocking the sale of REE to America, but they could decide to impose some hefty tariffs, couldn't they?

 
 
 
mocowgirl
Professor Quiet
7.1  mocowgirl  replied to  Buzz of the Orient @7    3 weeks ago
Obviously the trade benefits with the USA are more important to China than blocking the sale of REE to America, but they could decide to impose some hefty tariffs, couldn't they?

China could do a lot of things, but I suspect their leadership will play the long game to benefit their society instead of seeking short term gratification that might benefit the few.  This is something that US leadership seems to be incapable of.  

I googled for an overview of the China business model vs the United States business model.  The article below is short but gives some insight on cultural differences.  The comments are informative, also.

Contrast Between U.S. and China Business Practices (psu.edu)

Contrast Between U.S. and China Business Practices

March 30, 2020   by   cms7206   2 Comments

When it comes down to business practices, there are very few pairings that are as different as that of the U.S. and China.  Culturally, they are worlds apart, yet as the two largest economies in the world, they must learn to coexist.  The very basis of the mentality difference between the two cultures provides a foundation of massive differentiation.  The U.S., having pride in the success of the individual at all costs is the seemingly polar opposite to the collective national identity of the Chinese. (IBS, 2018)
 
 
 
Drinker of the Wry
Freshman Principal
7.1.1  Drinker of the Wry  replied to  mocowgirl @7.1    3 weeks ago

Thanks, interesting.  What did you learn about China’s business practice of theft of intellectual capital,  Estimates at the cost of this stealing range from $400-$600 billion a year or $4-12 trillion over the last 20 years from the US along.

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
Professor Principal
7.1.2  Buzz of the Orient  replied to  Drinker of the Wry @7.1.1    3 weeks ago

People in glass houses......etc.

.

Washington behind shameless cyber-attacks

"The tens of thousands of cyber-attacks launched against China's Northwestern Polytechnical University have finally been traced, after months of probe, to the Office of Tailored Access Operation, affiliated to the National Security Agency of the United States."

LINK ->

 
 
 
Drinker of the Wry
Freshman Principal
7.1.3  Drinker of the Wry  replied to  Buzz of the Orient @7.1.2    3 weeks ago

My comment was about the common Chinese business practice of stealing intellectual property and copy right infringement.  If you want to discuss cyber attack OK.  I hope the link you sent you s true, retaliatory hacks are long overdue.

Seven years ago, the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM), the agency that manages the government's civilian workforce, discovered that it’s personnel files had been hacked. Among the sensitive data was mine and millions of others SF-86 forms, These forms have info from background checks for people seeking government security clearances.  

Cyber forensics trace back to Chinese state-sponsored hackers.

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
Professor Principal
7.1.4  Buzz of the Orient  replied to  Drinker of the Wry @7.1.3    3 weeks ago

You're right, I misinterpreted.  As for business practices, it was my understanding that in China those who wanted to do business in China were required to provide the information you're describing.  It was NOT stolen and they were NOT forced to do it, because if they didn't all that would happen is that they were not permitted to do business in China.  So it wasn't theft, the choice was up to the foreign corporations. Greed is more important to those who are looking for more than a billion new consumers.

 
 
 
Drinker of the Wry
Freshman Principal
7.1.5  Drinker of the Wry  replied to  Buzz of the Orient @7.1.4    3 weeks ago
Greed is more important to those who are looking for more than a billion new consumers.

How do you think China's economy would have developed it the West had stayed away?

I misunderstood

You still are.  Some hacking is ,like traditional government espionage, and some is criminalby the state:

A years long malicious cyber operation spearheaded by the notorious Chinese state actor, APT 41, has siphoned off an estimated trillions in intellectual property theft from approximately 30 multinational companies within the manufacturing, energy and pharmaceutical sectors.

A new report by Boston-based cybersecurity firm, Cybereason, has unearthed a malicious campaign — dubbed Operation CuckooBees — exfiltrating hundreds of gigabytes of intellectual property and sensitive data, including blueprints, diagrams, formulas, and manufacturing-related proprietary data from multiple intrusions, spanning technology and manufacturing companies in North America, Europe, and Asia.

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
Professor Principal
7.1.6  Buzz of the Orient  replied to  Drinker of the Wry @7.1.5    3 weeks ago

Birds do it.  Bees do it.  Even educated fleas do it.  Let's spy on each other. 

spy_vs_spy_by_bradysarlo_d16n155-pre.jpg

Somehow I don't think that China is the only technologically advanced nation in the world that spies on other countries.

 
 
 
Drinker of the Wry
Freshman Principal
7.1.7  Drinker of the Wry  replied to  Buzz of the Orient @7.1.6    3 weeks ago
I don't think that China is the only technologically advanced nation in the world that spies on other countries.

How much intellectual property do you think Germany steals, France, Japan?

Or were you thinking of Russia and North Korea?

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
Professor Principal
7.1.8  Buzz of the Orient  replied to  Drinker of the Wry @7.1.7    3 weeks ago

America doesn't spy on other nations?

 
 
 
Drinker of the Wry
Freshman Principal
7.1.9  Drinker of the Wry  replied to  Buzz of the Orient @7.1.8    3 weeks ago

Do you believe that the US has stolen trillions of dollars of IP from China?

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
Professor Principal
7.1.10  Buzz of the Orient  replied to  Drinker of the Wry @7.1.9    3 weeks ago

When you answer my question I'll answer yours, but now it's 10 pm and I'm turning off my computer, but will be back here in the morning. 

 
 
 
Drinker of the Wry
Freshman Principal
7.1.11  Drinker of the Wry  replied to  Buzz of the Orient @7.1.10    3 weeks ago

When you return, please answer my question in 7.1.5.  and 7.1.7.

America doesn't spy on other nations?

That not the topic unless you're changing it.  My original comment was theft of IP as a business practice in China.

 
 
 
mocowgirl
Professor Quiet
7.1.12  mocowgirl  replied to  Drinker of the Wry @7.1.1    3 weeks ago
What did you learn about China’s business practice of theft of intellectual capital,

This is an article in Forbes from 3 years ago the gives some insight on your question to me.

How To Stop China From Stealing Your Intellectual Property (forbes.com)

The China-U.S. battle over IP is just getting started.

This summer, the   University of California system sued   Target, Amazon, Walmart and other retailers for patent infringement on LED filament bulbs designed by University researchers in Santa Barbara. A patent protects someone from making, using or selling the same thing, and it was China that was making the same thing.

Going after retailers for selling Made in China light bulbs that were based on the Santa Barbara patent is much easier than bringing a lawsuit to Chinese manufacturers who may, or may not, have known they were infringing on a patent.

Dean Pinkert, a partner with Hughes Hubbard’s international trade practice and former commissioner of the U.S. International Trade Commission said everyone in Washington knew that multinationals operating in China didn’t want to come forward and complain about IP theft publicly.

“They wanted to do business in China. There were lots of quiet concern about blowback from Beijing,” Pinkert says.

Should the University of California prevail in court, allowing future plaintiffs to sue a seller for patent infringement, then it changes the landscape for IP protection.

It’s potentially interesting for CIPRUN. “We have the connections,” says Giler on a summer afternoon luncheon at The Atlantic Fish Company in Boston. “We can go into China and say, ‘Look, here are the guys that are making this stuff’,” he says.

Target and others will say they didn’t infringe on anyone’s patents and that it is not their fault. The fault lies in China.

“They’re going to go after each one of their suppliers and tell them they are responsible for the purchase price and damages,” Giler thinks, adding that the retailers could be on the hook for “big money.”

In China, protecting IP is an agency business as opposed to a law firm as it is here in the U.S. The agency files the patents, not an attorney representing the company. It is considered a mostly apolitical business, though unlike here the China court system has no juries and they don’t use precedence.

Companies filing for IP globally may or may not have China protections. Patent Cooperation Treaties with some 152 countries make it easier to protect in more places than one, sort of like a master patent filing application. But China is not a signatory for all patents. Inventors need to single them out some times.
 
 
 
mocowgirl
Professor Quiet
7.1.13  mocowgirl  replied to  mocowgirl @7.1.12    3 weeks ago

and more info why American companies are loathe to leave China.  Also, an older article so I don't know how much has actually changed.

Why American Companies Choose China Over Everyone Else (forbes.com)

For all-around emerging market manufacturing know-how, for reliability, for currency stability, for safety and for domestic market growth, China is No. 1. The rest are more like No. 100.

No one comes close in the developing world to China. And that is why U.S. companies are so headstrong about staying there. The trade war will have to get much worse before they are forced to source elsewhere.

Last week, one of the biggest lobby groups for American multinationals in China, the U.S. China Business Council, put out their annual member survey. China was still as profitable or more so than other emerging markets where they have set up shop or source supply.

Only 3% said they were relocating to the U.S. because of tariffs. Under 7% said they were leaving China.

Why do American companies love China so much? It can’t be just because of its size. India is comparably large and friendlier to the U.S. Brazil is pretty big—and closer. Mexico, even closer.

Beat up on China all you want—the truth is that companies overwhelmingly want to be there. Portfolio managers want to as well.

From a corporate perspective, here is what makes China better than the rest.

  • Taxes:

The corporate   tax rate in China is 25%.

It’s   35%   in India,   34%   in Brazil, and 30% in   Mexico.   Right off the bat, China is at least 5% cheaper.

Five percent won’t be the deciding factor in deciding whether to set up a factory in China. But these issues sure will ...

  • Labor:

China is a communist country, so one would expect their workers would have collective bargaining and other rights. While labor rights are stricter now in China than they were even five years ago and wages are rising, China wages are still cheaper than Brazil’s and Mexico’s.

In terms of labor rights, China ranks 5 on a scale of 1 to 5 as one of the world’s worst countries for workers, according to the International Trade Union Confederation. India is just as bad, meaning it’s a place where businesses can more easily exploit workers.

Mexico is a 4 and Brazil is a 3.

Brazil has some of the toughest labor laws around. Good luck firing someone in Brazil or beating a union lawsuit in a court.

Strong labor rights that favor unions tend to be unattractive to global capital looking for cheap inputs and little drama. China has comparatively weak labor protections on one hand, and a diverse pool of talent on the other—from stitch-and-sew factory workers to scientists and other high tech, advanced machine tool operators are all at the ready. There are hundreds of thousands of them. No country has this.

Moreover, even though India has a similar workforce situation in terms of rights and size, the government long ago decided to focus on being a software developer and IT service exporter.

As an economy, India is known for its IT firms and maybe a generic drug manufacturer. China is surpassing them on the generic drugs side.

China is known for producing everything. Need a photovoltaic cell panel for a drone? China can make that. Need a float for your swimming pool? China’s got it. It’s a wonder that Alibaba or Tencent haven’t spun off their own IT outsourcing unit to compete with Infosys yet.

India also changes governments every few years and only recently unified its cross-state tax code. China has none of these problems. Continuity makes life easier for businesses. It’s one less headache.
 
 
 
mocowgirl
Professor Quiet
7.1.14  mocowgirl  replied to  mocowgirl @7.1.13    3 weeks ago

more...

Why American Companies Choose China Over Everyone Else (forbes.com)
  • Logistics:

There are hidden costs involved in doing business in any country. Taxes can be written off. But countries like Brazil have hidden taxes hard to avoid. A simple corporate cellphone account is taxed nearly as much as the corporate tax rate.

Then there is corruption and crime which makes doing business in these countries more complicated.

  • Bad guys:

China is corrupt. But not as corrupt as any other major emerging market.

According to Transparency International’s 2018   Corruption Perception Index , China ranks 87th out of 180 nations. India is better at 78. Brazil ranks 105th and Mexico is terrible at 138, equal to Russia, a country everyone in the market refers to as the Wild East.

The small Southeast Asian nations that have been benefiting from Chinese manufacturers setting up factories there aren’t much better, according to Transparency International. Vietnam is ranked 117 out of 180. More corruption often means companies have to face bribes and other strong-arm tactics by politicians and regulators to do business.

Corruption perception in China is not great. But crime is low.

Crime is not as rampant in China as it is elsewhere in emerging markets . India, Mexico and Brazil are way more dangerous. If quality of life for expat workers comes into play, then building a factory in those countries is less safe than building one in China.

Investing in operations in Rio de Janeiro and bringing down American workers might sound enticing, but Rio is one of the most dangerous cities in the world, which is one factor why few companies even consider it.

  • Bad air:

Of the  10 most polluted cities in the world , 9 of them are in India.

  • Lower energy costs:

If you’re a company concerned about electricity prices (and Brazil’s taxes on top of that), then China is better at just   $0.08 per kilowatt hour.

Abundant labor, from skilled to unskilled, weak unions, stable currency and politics, world-class logistics and a safer place to do business makes China better than the rest.
 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
Professor Principal
7.1.15  Buzz of the Orient  replied to  Drinker of the Wry @7.1.11    3 weeks ago
"How do you think China's economy would have developed it the West had stayed away?"

It may have taken a longer time.

"How much intellectual property do you think Germany steals, France, Japan?"

How can I possibly have an answer to that?  

"Or were you thinking of Russia and North Korea?"

No.

Now you can answer MY question, and I would appreciate an answer rather than another question as an answer.

 
 
 
Drinker of the Wry
Freshman Principal
7.1.16  Drinker of the Wry  replied to  Buzz of the Orient @7.1.15    3 weeks ago

Of course the US spies on other countries, it's common knowledge.

 
 
 
Buzz of the Orient
Professor Principal
7.1.17  Buzz of the Orient  replied to  Drinker of the Wry @7.1.16    3 weeks ago

Now I'll answer your question and as far as I'm concerned it ends this dialogue.  I have no idea how much IP America has got from Chinese government, military, corporations and institutions, but if it isn't much then the American intelligence agencies are damned incompetent.  I suppose if Edward Snowden was still around we might know.  

 
 
 
Nerm_L
Professor Principal
8  Nerm_L    3 weeks ago

A lot of this angst could be avoided by focusing attention on energy efficiency and conservation.  But, nooooo, we'd rather focus attention on economic growth, money, and finance.  Is it even possible to discuss a 'green future' without talking about money?  

Rare earths are not that scarce.  What makes rare earths 'rare' is that they are widely dispersed.  It's possible to recover rare earths from desalination brine.  But, hell no, that's not profitable.  Money is the most important thing in this galaxy.

If energy production is a problem then it seems rather apparent the real need is to reduce energy consumption.  That hasn't been a priority for the environmental movement or banking based government.  It is easier to produce money than energy, after all.  Just ignore the real world and everything will be fine.

 
 
 
Freefaller
Professor Participates
9  Freefaller    3 weeks ago

I have seen a couple of documentaries which theorize that much more REE's are available for mining on the floors of the worlds oceans (makes sense considering how much of our planet is covered by water).  While we currently lack the tech to access them it's only a matter of time.

 
 

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